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2011-01-25 14:23:22
bio biology honors orangic chem chemistry

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  1. What makes a compound organic?
    contains carbon(C) and hydrogen(H)
  2. What is the function of carbohydrates?
    short term energy
  3. What are two functions of protein?
    • 1. growth and repair
    • 2. hair
  4. What are two functions of lipids?
    • 1. long term energy
    • 2. hormones
  5. What are three examples of carbohydrates?
    • 1. glucose
    • 2. lactose
    • 3. cellulose
  6. What are three examples of lipids?
    • 1. fats
    • 2. oils
    • 3. waxes
  7. What are the building blocks of carbohydrates?
  8. What are the building blocks of proteins?
    amino acids
  9. What are the building blocks of lipids?
    3 fatty acids and glycerol
  10. fatty acid structure
  11. glycerol structure
  12. glucose structure
  13. amino acid structure
  14. What is the difference between a lipid and a carbohydrate?
    A carbohydrate contains a definate ratio: 2 hydrogens(H) for every oxygen (O)
  15. What makes a protein so different from carbohydrates and lipids?
    it contains nitrogen(N)
  16. OH
    hydroxyl group
  17. COOH
    carboxyl group
  18. NH2
    amino group
  19. What functional group(s) is/are found in glucose?
  20. What functional group(s) is/are found in amino acids?
    amino and carboxyl
  21. What functional group(s) is/are found in fatty acids?
  22. What functional group(s) is/are found in glycerol?
  23. What are the building blocks of nucleic acids?
  24. What does nucleic acids and it's nucleotides make up?
    DNA and RNA
  25. What elements make up nucleic acids?
    carbon(C), hydrogen(H), oxygen(O), phospherous(P), and nitrogen(N)
  26. What is a monosaccharide? What is one example?
    1 glucose : glucose
  27. What is a disaccharide? What is one example?
    2 glucose : lactose
  28. What is a polysaccharide? What is one example?
    many glucose : cellulose
  29. What is a monopeptide?
    1 amino acid
  30. What is a dipeptide?
    2 amino acids
  31. What is a polypeptide?
    many amino acids
  32. What holds monosaccharides together?
    glycocidic bonds/linkages
  33. What holds monopeptides together?
    peptide bonds
  34. What is hydrolysis?
    the break down of large molecules to smalll molecules using water
  35. What is dehydration synthesis?
    a larger molecule is formed from smaller molecules and water is released
  36. What is starch used for?
    Storage in plants
  37. What does chitin make up?
    exoskeletons of insects
  38. What does cellulose make up?
    cell membrane and cell wall in plants
  39. What is glycogen used for?
    storage in animals
  40. What can a lipid make up?
    cell membrane
  41. What is an enzyme?
    a protein that speeds up the rate of chemical reactions
  42. What is a substrate?
    what enzymes act upon
  43. Where does an enzyme "attach" to a substrate?
    at the active site
  44. What helps enzymes?
    coenzymes (vitamins)
  45. What are 3 factors that affect the rate of reaction of enzymes?
    temperature, pH, and concentration (amount) of enzymes or substrates
  46. What happens to the enzyme if the pH or temperature is not right?
    it may denature
  47. What will happen to the amount of enzyme activity if the enzyme/ concentration went up?
    it would increase then level off
  48. What is an indicator?
    a chemical that changes color when in the presence of a specific substance
  49. What ate the 2 indicators for carbohydrates?
    iodine and benedict's solution
  50. In a liver what is the enzyme called that breaks down hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)?
    catalase or peroxidase