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Science is a way of knowing & understanding that ________.
involves making & testing hypothesis.
What are two ways in which scientists evaluate hypothesis?
- 1. expirimental: good for proximate (immediate) causes.
- 2. Comparative: good for ultimate (evolution) causes.
exprimental is good for ________ (______).
comparative is good for _________ (_______).
- proximate (immediate) causes
- (how things work)
- ultimate (evolution) causes
- (why things work)
_______ (____): population may change through time. Inheritance of acquired characteristics: _________________.
- Lamarck (1809)
- : new traits are acquired during lifetime through use/disuse.
Darwin: Naturalist abroad Beagle, _____ to explore _______. Most influential stop was _______. Concluded that different species had a ___________ & had diversified into different species.
- 5 yrs mission, South American & Pacific.
- Galapagos Island.
- single species origin.
What did Darwin fail to do?
he failed to explain how inheritance & genetic variation worked.
______: an attribute that enhances an organisms ability to survive & succesfully reproduce.
What are 3 sources of variation?
- 1. independent asortment of alleles
- 2. crossing over during meiosis
- 3. mutations
Genetic Drift: _____________. most important in ______ b/c it may cause loss of alleles.
- a random change in allele frequencies from one generation to the next.
- small populations.
Carlous Linnaeus: ______, swedish botanist, published _____ in 1756.
Binomial Nomenclature, Systema Maturae.
________ species concept: species are fixed, exhibiting little variation in time or geography.
_____ species concept: emphasizes historical fate & identity as a lineage. Evolutionary cohesivness.
______ species concept: emphasizes reproductive properties & reprodictve isolation. Doesn't work well with _____ & ____.
- asexual, geographically isolated species.
____ of _____: oldest name is correct.
Principle of priority
What are the 3 Cladogram groups?
- 1. Monophyletic
- 2. Paraphyletic
- 3. Polyphyletic
____: ancestor & some but not all descendents.
_____: ancestor & all of its desendents.
_____: contain members from 2 unrelated groups.
what is a sister group?
2 monophyletic groups that share a unique common ancestor.