CHFD 3710 Exam 1

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jacquiroxx
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62027
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CHFD 3710 Exam 1
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2011-02-10 11:07:27
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Midlife
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3710
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  1. Beanpole Family
    3 or more generations
  2. Why Study Aging?
    • Understand current social issues
    • Increasing older ppl will bring changes in social institutions
    • More community-based healthcare services
    • Older ppl will take part in recreation activity than ever before
  3. Ageism
    A process of systematic stereotyping & discrimination against ppl because they're old
  4. "New" Ageism
    • The desired to help older people
    • Compassionate ageism (giving up seat on the bus, etc.)
    • Has a positive spin with a negative undertone
  5. The Aging Enterprise
    Helps older people by providing assistance where they need it
  6. Medicare
    • Set at 65 because most ppl weren't expected to live that long.
    • So, they were only helping some people
    • The age for eligibility is rising as ppl live longer
    • Part of compassionate/"new" ageism
  7. Older Americans Act
    • Part of compassionate ageism, "New" ageism
    • Can't discriminate in the workforce based on age
  8. Ads with Older Ppl Tend to Be Focused on
    • Cancer survival
    • Memory loss
    • Loss of sexual vigor (ie- Viagra ads)
  9. Elderspeak
    • "Ageism at its worst!"
    • Baby talk to older people
    • Based on stereotypes
    • Can lower self-esteem
    • Decreases ability to communicate effectively
    • Decreases quality of interaction
    • Decreases sense of control
  10. Why are older people likely to be victims of fraud?
    • They have large amounts of money
    • They have fewer social supports
    • They're more vulnerable to deceptive businesses
  11. Types of Fraud
    • Auto or home repair
    • Phone slamming & cramming
    • Telemarketing
    • Bank examiner
    • Email phishing
  12. Effects of Victimization
    • Lower self-image
    • Feelings of inferiority
    • Loss of self-esteem
    • Loss of independence
    • Institutionalization
  13. Problems of old age that most early gerontologists focused on
    • Disease
    • Disability
    • Decline
    • Death
  14. Study of Aging: 17th Century
    • Researchers trained in natural science & medicine
    • Scientific methods (but still looking at the problems in aging!)
    • Systematic observations
  15. Study of Aging: 18th Century
    • Included mathematics
    • 1st American geriatric publication ("Account of the Body and Mind in Old Age" by Benjamin Rush)
    • Started to do research- not just personal experience & observation
    • When we discovered that age is not a "disease"
    • Began a modern period of aging research
  16. "Account of the Body and Mind in Old Age"
    • 1st American geriatric publication (18th century)
    • Benjamin Rush
    • Based on a review of more than only religious texts
  17. 19th Century
    • Quetelet: “social physics” (numbers)
    • First use of the term "gerontology"
    • Socity of Gerontology of 1912
  18. Quetelet
    • Social physics
    • Used quantitative methods (numbers) to study physical & social age differences
  19. First use of the term "gerontology"
    • 19th century
    • Elie Metchnikoff
    • Wrote first gerontology text
  20. Society of Geriatry, 1912
    The earliest society of ppl who came together to focus on aging
  21. Senescence
    Shutting down associated with age
  22. Social Gerontology
    • Clark Tibbits (1954)
    • Trying to understand ppl's lives (not just the biological aspects)
    • Incl. integration of all 3 core areas of aging studies
    • Perspective of individual & social systems
    • Life course perspective on change (thinks across the lifespan, considers all aspects of a person's life)
  23. Core Areas of Aging Studies
    • Biomedicine
    • Psychosocial studies
    • Socioeconomic-environmental studies
  24. Biomedicine Studies
    • One of the core areas of aging studies
    • Changes in the body that come with age
    • DNA, Cells, Body systems, Stress, Dementia
    • Experts in most agreement on content in this area
  25. Psychosocial Studies
    • One of the core areas of aging studies
    • Changes that take place within the individual
    • Changes between individuals & groups
    • Memory, Creativity, Learning, Personality, Relationships, Death & dying
  26. Socioeconomic-Environmental Studies
    • One of the core areas of aging studies
    • Effects of aging on social institions
    • Economy, family, healthcare system
  27. Baby Boomers
    Born 1946-1964
  28. How Will Baby Boomers Affect the Healthcare System?
    • Stress social security
    • Affect the number of ppl working w/ elders
    • Create demand for more ppl to work w/ aging population
  29. Micro-Level Theory
    • People & relationships
    • Small scale events
    • Individual change (how does this concept influence the individual?)
  30. Macro-Level Theory
    • Social institutions & systems
    • Large scale events
    • The way social institutions shape experiences & behaviors
  31. Interpretive Perspective
    • How individuals define & create
    • Micro-level (small scale)
    • Relatively few gerontologists use this perspective
    • Critique: Gives only 1 view of social life & doesn't discuss power & conflict btw. social groups
  32. Social Constructionism
    • Theory within the interpretive perspective
    • How we, as individuals, assign meaning to interactions
  33. Social Exchange Theory
    • Theory within the interpretive persepective
    • How we engage in exchanges
  34. Social Phenomonology
    • Theory within the interpretive perspective
    • Looks at the event, seeking to understand the essense of an interaction; the defining concept
  35. Ethnomethodology
    • Theory within the interpretive perspective
    • Taking everyday knowledge/interactions and interpeting them using the words of those who are interacting
  36. Functionalist Perspective
    • Social order based on cooperation
    • Society is made up of many parts
    • Society regulates itself (so if a system no longer works, society takes care of it)
    • Change in system evokes mechanisms to reestablish order
    • Norms & roles shape behavior
    • Conformity thru pressure & belief
    • Formal & informal sanctions
    • Society changes in positive ways
  37. Disengagement Theory
    • Theory within functionalist perspective
    • Stop working in society
  38. Acitivity Theory
    • Theory within functionalist perspective
    • The activities one engages in in younger life are likely to be continued in older life
  39. Modernization Theory
    • Theory within functionalist perspective
    • As the society modernizes, older persons are left behind (modern ideas are not likely to be adopted by the elderly)
  40. Age-Stratification Theory
    • Theory within functionalist perspective
    • Helps us to define what an appropriate role is according to one's age
    • If a person's not doing what they're "supposed" to be doing at their age, they're often viewed negatively
    • Assumptions: Norms & values infl. indiv. aging; Relationship btw. indiv. & society as a feedback loop (one cannot understand the indiv. or society without understanding both)
  41. Cohort
    A group of ppl defined by shared experience
  42. Life Course Approach
    • Most important theoretical concept for gerontologists
    • Looks micro & macro levels of analysis (looks at indiv. & society interactions)
    • Recognizes differences within (not across!) age cohorts, roles, & role-change
    • Understands aging as a dynamic process that takes place t/o life
    • Encourages thought ab. the many forces that affect aging (let's look at our society so it's good for ppl of ALL ages)
    • Transitions & trajectories
  43. Transitions & Trajectories
    • Transitions: The point of change
    • Trajectories: The path you're on once that transition occurs
  44. Experimental Designs
    • Very few true experiments (bc of ethics)
    • Comparison of groups that already exist (ie- smokers v. non-smokers)
    • Looking for causation
    • Problems: Correlation is not causation; Diff's btw. age groups may not be due to age alone
  45. The APC Problem
    • Age Effects (physical decline)
    • Period Effects (time of measurement- situation at time of study/at time of experience)
    • Cohort Effects(related to indiv's age- ppl born around the same time and often share a common experience)
  46. Paradigms
    • Part of quantitative & qualitative methods
    • Frameworks for thinking ab. & understanding natural or social phenomena
    • Defines research questions
    • Guides methods for conducting studies
  47. Positivism
    • Part of quantitative & qualitative methods
    • A natural science paradigm (if I do x, then y will happen)
    • Positivist methods include: mathematical measurement, statistical methods, & cause and effect
    • Seeks to control natural events
  48. Quantitative Research Methods
    • Based on positivist paradigm
    • Surveys, questionnaires
    • Strengths: gather lots of info on many issues, analyze large samples, generalize to populations
    • Limitations: Doesn't matter "why," Rules out many questions as unscientific, Structured questions with limited answer choices (leaves out subjective experience & perceptions of participants)
  49. Qualitative Research Methods
    • Interviews
    • Life histories
    • Case studies
    • Documents & artifacts (study ppl's stuff)
    • Field observation
    • Participant observation
    • Limitations: We can't generalize across groups; Time consuming
  50. Ethical Issues in Research
    • Three Main Ethical Issues: informed consent, guarding subjects from harm or injury, protecting the individual's privacy
    • Vulnerable groups require extra protection
  51. Population Aging
    • Not a new concept BUT now growing faster
    • Steady growth of 130 years
    • Growth is a steady swell, not a tidal wave
  52. Demography
    The study of human populations
  53. 3 Measures to Study Population Aging & Change
    • Absolute # of older ppl in a population
    • Median age (half ppl older, half ppl younger)
    • Increased proportion of older ppl (used more often by gerontologists; Relationship btw. older ppl & the rest of society- shows how much infl. the older group will have on society)
  54. Migration
    • Less of an impact than in the past
    • Most immigrants are of a younger age, and will have more impact when they're older
  55. Birth Rates
    • Main cause of population aging in the 20th century
    • Now there's a decline in fertility and death rates
  56. Changes that Infl. Population Aging
    • Increase in births before 1920, and immigration
    • Post WWII baby boom
    • First (oldest) boomers reach 65 in 2011
  57. Factors Leading to Lower Birthrates
    • Birth control
    • Years in school
    • Increased # of women working outside the home
    • Smaller proportion of childbearing age women in population today
  58. Age Categories of the Older Population
    • 65-74: Young-Old
    • 75-84: Old
    • 85+: Oldest-Old
    • The oldest age group will be one of the fastest-growing groups into the next century
  59. Oldest-Old Characteristics
    • Smaller social networks
    • Social networks declined over time
    • 1/2 men married
    • 11% women married
    • 1/3 had no living children
    • Use most nursing home services
    • Multiple chronic conditions
    • High disability rates
  60. Accumulation
    • Younger ppl move out
    • Older ppl stay put
    • Higher concentrations due to natural accumulation
  61. Recompostion
    • Younger ppl move out
    • Older ppl move in
    • Ex: Retirement to rural areas
    • Arkansas, Missouri
  62. Congregation
    • All ages move there
    • Older ppl move there at the fastest pace
    • Also attract young ppl
    • Keeps proportion of older population low
    • Florida, Arizona, North Carolina, California, Texa
  63. Amenity Migration
    Want to move somewhere to enjoy a new lifestyle or return to their roots (where they grew up, etc.)
  64. Kinship Migration
    • Assistance- moves back to be near family
    • Often triggered by a health crisis (need help w/ moderate disability)
  65. Preparation for Aging
    • From the community to institutional setting
    • Need help w/ major disability
  66. The Impact of Population Aging
    • Population Aged 0-14 and 65 and older
    • Population Aged 15-64

    • A crude measure comparing the number of working-age ppl to non-working age ppl
    • Very critiqued

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