BC Nutrition and Cancer #20.txt

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BC Nutrition and Cancer #20.txt
2011-01-25 19:44:50
BC Nutrition Cancer

BC Nutrition and Cancer #20
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  1. Which plays a larger role in cancer, Heredity or Environment?
  2. Diet is the largest player of Cancer
  3. What is a carcinogen?
    Any agent that increases cancer risk
  4. What is an initiation agent?
    Causes DNA damage and mutations
  5. What is a tumor promoter?
    Takes the DNA damage and mutations and progresses them to cancer (salt, alcohol)
  6. What is a the test for causative agents?
    Ames Test: test bacterial capability to initiate damage and mutations
  7. What is the test for causative & preventative agent?
    Animal testing: dosage experiments
  8. What is the test for causative & preventative factors?
    Epidemiological studies
  9. What does the does threshhold of Animal Dose testing reveal?
    It shows that there is a lower level that cannot be extrapolated to assure that cancer will be caused
  10. Is a threshhold does-response relationship more common for initiating agents or tumor promoters?
    Tumor promoters
  11. What are the five biases of epidemiological studies?
    • 1) Selection
    • 2) Experimental
    • 3) Detection
    • 4) Publication
    • 5) Confounding
  12. What is meta-analysis?
    Taking various animal and human studies and combining their data to find results
  13. What are the four dietary factors that were found to be carcinogenic through meta-analysis?
    • 1) Red Meat
    • 2) Obesity
    • 3) Salted Foods
    • 4) Alcohol
  14. How are heterocyclic amines formed?
    Grilling, frying foods
  15. Why are HA a problem?
    They are precarcinogenic and become carcinogenic in the liver through the p450 system
  16. Are HAs a Initiator or Tumore promoter?
    Initiator: cause DNA breaks and mutations
  17. How are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed?
    • Fat dropping on a hot grill/stove.
    • Carried in the smoke and stick to food.
  18. Are PAHs IA or TP?
    IA: DNA breaks and mutations
  19. What food contains sodium nitrites?
    Processed meats
  20. What do Sodium nitrites cause?
    • DNA adducts
    • Mispairing
  21. Where and why is salt a carcinogen?
    • Where: Stomach
    • Why: causes proliferation of epithelial lining cells
  22. Is salt an IF or TP?
  23. What does alcohol produce in the mouth to be carcinogenic?
  24. What does alcohol produce in the liver to be carcinogenic?
    ROS from p450 system
  25. Why does obesity lead to cancers?
    Adipocytes actively release hormones that can lead to cancer (insulin, estrogen, IFG-1)
  26. What is the leading factor of cancer reduction?