BC Nutrition and Cancer #20.txt
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Which plays a larger role in cancer, Heredity or Environment?
Diet is the largest player of Cancer
What is a carcinogen?
Any agent that increases cancer risk
What is an initiation agent?
Causes DNA damage and mutations
What is a tumor promoter?
Takes the DNA damage and mutations and progresses them to cancer (salt, alcohol)
What is a the test for causative agents?
Ames Test: test bacterial capability to initiate damage and mutations
What is the test for causative & preventative agent?
Animal testing: dosage experiments
What is the test for causative & preventative factors?
What does the does threshhold of Animal Dose testing reveal?
It shows that there is a lower level that cannot be extrapolated to assure that cancer will be caused
Is a threshhold does-response relationship more common for initiating agents or tumor promoters?
What are the five biases of epidemiological studies?
- 1) Selection
- 2) Experimental
- 3) Detection
- 4) Publication
- 5) Confounding
What is meta-analysis?
Taking various animal and human studies and combining their data to find results
What are the four dietary factors that were found to be carcinogenic through meta-analysis?
- 1) Red Meat
- 2) Obesity
- 3) Salted Foods
- 4) Alcohol
How are heterocyclic amines formed?
Grilling, frying foods
Why are HA a problem?
They are precarcinogenic and become carcinogenic in the liver through the p450 system
Are HAs a Initiator or Tumore promoter?
Initiator: cause DNA breaks and mutations
How are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed?
- Fat dropping on a hot grill/stove.
- Carried in the smoke and stick to food.
Are PAHs IA or TP?
IA: DNA breaks and mutations
What food contains sodium nitrites?
What do Sodium nitrites cause?
Where and why is salt a carcinogen?
- Where: Stomach
- Why: causes proliferation of epithelial lining cells
What does alcohol produce in the mouth to be carcinogenic?
What does alcohol produce in the liver to be carcinogenic?
ROS from p450 system
Why does obesity lead to cancers?
Adipocytes actively release hormones that can lead to cancer (insulin, estrogen, IFG-1)
What is the leading factor of cancer reduction?
What would you like to do?
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