ID Exam 1 Matching

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mtr14
ID:
62032
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ID Exam 1 Matching
Updated:
2011-01-26 21:02:35
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Anthrax Tetanus Botulism AAC Clostridial Myonecrosis Diphtheria Pertussis Plague PUD
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Diseases/Disease States
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  1. MORPHOLOGY
    Gram-positive bacillus (rod)
    - "Square-cut" ends
    - Occurs singly, in pairs, or in long chains ("string of pearls")
    Spore-forming
    - Oval spores
    - Centrally located
    Encapsulated
    Nonmotile
    B. anthracis (Anthrax)
  2. B. anthracis (Anthrax)Growth Media
    Grows best on blood agar at 37 degrees Celcius
    - Nonhemolytic
    - Produces rough colonies, with irregular edges ("Medusa head")
    Liquefies gelatin
    - "Stabs" resemble "inverted fir trees"
    B. anthracis (Anthrax)
  3. Antigenic Structure
    Has 3 exotoxins: protective antigen, edema toxin, lethal toxin

    For disease to occur, the following must be present: edema toxin, lethal toxin, and capsule
    B. anthracis (Anthrax)
  4. Diagnostic Tests for this organism include:
    -DFA test (direct fluorescent antibody)
    -Nucleic acid amplification tests (PCR)
    -Europium nanoparticle-based immunoassay (ENIA)
    B. anthracis (Anthrax)
  5. TREATMENT
    Drugs of first choice
    - Ciprofloxacin
    - Doxycycline
    B. anthracis (Anthrax)
  6. MORPHOLOGY
    Gram-positive bacillus that commonly appears to be Gram-Negative

    Terminal Spores
    -"tennis racket" or "drumstick" appearance
    C. tetani (Tetanus) / C. botulinum (Botulism) / C. perfringens (Clostridial Myonecrosis/Gas Gangrene)
  7. Growth Media
    -Blood agar at 37C under anaerobic conditions
    -Liquid medium with reducing agents under aerobic conditions
    -Growth on solid media
    -- colonies with compact center and irregular edges, with a loose meshwork of filaments spread on the surface ("sprig of maidenhair fern")
    -Difficult to grow and identify
    C. tetani (Tetanus) / C. botulinum (Botulism) / C. perfringens (Clostridial Myonecrosis/Gas Gangrene)
  8. Antigenic Structure
    produces 2 exotoxins: tetanolysin and tetanospasmin
    C. tetani (Tetanus)
  9. Diagnostic Tests for this organism include:
    Mouse virulence assay
    -recover organism from culture
    -tetanus antitoxin neutralization test
    -confirms production of tetanospasmin
    C. tetani (Tetanus)
  10. TREATMENT
    Drug of first choice - Metronidazole
    *Penicillin is contraindicated
    C. tetani (Tetanus)
  11. ANTIGENIC STRUCTURE
    -Produces an exotoxin with 7 antigenic variants
    -Only one toxin is produced by most individual isolates
    -The toxins are neurotoxins
    *type A exotoxin is the MOST POTENT POISON known to man
    C. botulinum (Botulism)
  12. Diagnosis (very difficult)
    Confirmation via demonstration of the presence of the toxin in feces or serum

    Food or biospecimen may be analyzed for neurotoxin in the mouse virulence assay
    C. botulinum (Botulism)
  13. TREATMENT
    -Elimination of the source of toxin
    -Elimination of any unabsorbed toxin
    -Neutralization of any unbound toxin with specific antitoxin
    -Provide supportive care (Mechanical Ventilation)
    **Trivalent botulinum antitoxin is available
    C. botulinum (Botulism)
  14. MORPHOLOGY
    Slender, Gram-Positive rods
    - Anaerobic
    - Large, oval, subterminal spores
    Nonhemolytic
    Multiple and varied fermentation products
    -particularly short chain fatty acids
    Numerous degradative enzymes - Hyaluronidases, Collagenases, Proteases
    C. difficile (AAC)
  15. Growth
    -CDC Agar
    -Cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar (CCF agar)
    C. difficile (AAC)
  16. Antigenic Structure
    Two toxins: Enterotoxin (toxin A) and Cytotoxin B (toxin B)
    Other virulence factors - bacterial surface layer proteins (SLP) ----> produces disease
    C. difficile (AAC)
  17. Diagnosis
    -History and symptomatology
    -Colonoscopy
    -ELISA
    -Isolation and identification of the organism from a stool specimen, as well as toxin detection, requires initial cultivation of a selective agar medium
    C. difficile (AAC)
  18. Treatment (Oral Antiobiotic Therapy)
    -Metronidazole
    -Vancomycin
    C. difficile (AAC)
  19. Antigenic Structure
    A variety of toxins and enzymes are produced (at least 12)
    -Alpha toxin (lecithinase)
    -Beta toxin
    -Iota toxin
    -Kappa toxin
    -Mu toxin
    -Nu toxin
    C. perfringens (Clostridial Myonecrosis/Gas Gangrene)
  20. Diagnostic Tests
    -Nagler Reaction- detects the presence of Alpha toxin
    C. perfringens (Clostridial Myonecrosis/Gas Gangrene)
  21. Treatment
    Drug of first choice - high dose penicillin + Clindamycin
    Mechanical Ventilation (hyperbaric oxygen chambers)
    C. perfringens (Clostridial Myonecrosis/Gas Gangrene)
  22. Morphology
    -
    Gram-positive bacillus
    -metachromatic granules
    C. Diphtheriae (Diphtheria)
  23. Growth Media
    -Organisms grow well on Loeffler's coagulated serum slant
    -Frequently characterized via growth on a cysteine-tellurite agar plate
    C. Diphtheriae (Diphtheria)
  24. Antigenic Structure
    -K antigen
    -Diphtheria Exotoxin
    C. Diphtheriae (Diphtheria)
  25. Diagnostic Tools
    Elek immunodiffusion test +
    PCR
    C. Diphtheriae (Diphtheria)
  26. Treatment
    -Early Administration of antitoxin
    -Drug of first choice - Erythromycin
    C. Diphtheriae (Diphtheria)
  27. Morphology
    -
    very small gram-negative coccobacillus
    -encapsulated
    -possess fimbriae
    Bordetella pertussis (Pertussis)
  28. Growth Media
    --traditional media -> Bordet-Gengou Medium
    Bordetella pertussis (Pertussis)
  29. Antigenic Structure
    -Fimbriae
    -pertactin
    -histamine-sensitizing
    protein exotoxin
    Bordetella pertussis (Pertussis)
  30. Diagnostic Tests
    Nasopharyngeal swabs using
    -Direct fluorescence antibody stains (DFA)
    Bordetella pertussis (Pertussis)
  31. Treatment
    Oxygen inhalation;
    sedation; steroid therapy
    Drug of 1st Choice
    -Erythromycin/Clarithromycin/Zithromycin
    Bordetella pertussis (Pertussis)
  32. Morphology
    Small, Gram-negative coccobacillus
    Wayson bipolar stain
    Yersinia pestis (Plague)
  33. Growth Media
    Growth is optimal on blood agar at 28C
    Yersinia pestis (Plague)
  34. Antigenic Structure
    V-W antigens (YOPs)
    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
    Yersinia pestis (Plague)
  35. Diagnostic Tool
    Bipolar Wayson stain + Bubo
    aspirate DFA stain
    Yersinia pestis (Plague)
  36. Treatment
    Drug of 1st choice - Streptomycin +/- Tetracycline
    Yersinia pestis (Plague)
  37. Morphology
    Spiral-shaped or curved Gram-negative bacillus
    Motile
    Nonencapsulated
    Nonsporeforming
    Microaerobic
    H. pylori (PUD)
  38. Growth Media
    Fresh chocolate (hemolyzed blood) agar
    Modified Thayer-Martin agar
    H. pylori (PUD)
  39. Antigenic Structure
    produce a urease enzyme
    H. pylori (PUD)
  40. Diagnostic Tests
    Urea breath-test
    Tissue biopsy
    Immunoserology
    Antigen detection
    H. pylori (PUD)
  41. Treatment
    Combination antibiotic therapy is standard
    -Amoxicillin
    -Clarithromycin
    -Tetracycline
    -Metronidazole
    -Bismuth Subsalicylate
    H. pylori (PUD)

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