nutrition

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shaiangelz
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nutrition
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2011-02-03 11:58:28
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nutrition
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  1. food:
    -the carrier of nourishment
    -a substance that will enable the body to stay alive, grow and maintain health
    when you choose foods with nutrition in mind, you can enhance your own well being
  2. energy: the capacity to do work
    -your body uses energy to move or work
    -food supplies energy
    -food energy is measured in kilocalories
    nutrients: components of food that help to nourish the body
  3. nutrient functions:
    -provides energy
    -serve as building materials for growth, maintenance and repair of body tissues
    -regulate metabolism
    • six nutrient classes:
    • -water
    • -carbohydrate
    • -fat
    • -protein
    • -vitamins
    • -minerals
  4. water:
    the most vital of all nutrients
    -it is the environment in which all your body cells live
    • three energy containing nutrients:
    • -carbohydrate
    • -fat
    • -protein
  5. vitamins and minerals:
    -do not contain energy
    -assist in body processes
    -some assist in the processes which make the energy in food available to the body
    • essential nutrients:
    • some nutrients must be supplied by your diet or a deficiency will develop
  6. alcohol:
    -contains energy (calories)
    -but is NOT a nutrient
    -harms the body when consumed in excess
    When you eat food, you are receiving more than just nutrients.
  7. some foods offer beneficial nutrients called phytochemicals
    • calories: the units used to measure the energy in food
    • -technically "kilocalories"
  8. grams: units of weight
    -the carbohydrate, protein and fat content in food is measured in grams
    • values of the three energy nutrients
    • nutrient: ............ Kilocalories
    • carbohydrate .....4 kcal per gram
    • fat .....................9 kcal per gram
    • protein ..............4 kcal per gram
    • alcohol...............7 kcal per gram (but is NOT a nutrient)
  9. all these factors help build a nutritious diet
    -adequacy
    -balance
    -calorie control
    -moderation
    -variety
    • terms referring to types of foods:
    • -basic or whole foods
    • -partitioned foods -usually empty calorie foods (calories with very little nutrient content)
    • -natural foods
  10. functional foods: foods that may protect against choronic diseases by way of the nutrients, phytochemicals and other compounds they may contain
    • nutrient density: foods that supply the most nutrient for the least amount of calories
    • -getting the most nutrients for your calories
  11. which is the most nutrient dense food?
    baked potato: ..............french fries
    220 calories.................220 calories
    5 grams of fiber............1 gram
    20mg of calcium...........10mg
    26 mg of vitamin c........8mg
    2.8 mg of iron................5 mg
    • icecream vs. non fat milk
    • 1 cup of icecream provides
    • 264 calories, 170 mg of calcium

    • 1 cup of non fat milk provides
    • 90 calories, 302 mg of calcium
  12. healthy people 2010:
    -nutrition can influence four health conditions--heart disease, cancer, overweight and growth retardation
    -there is a relationship between lifestyle choices and chronic diseases
    • healthy people:
    • -increase the proportion of persons aged 2 years and older who consume no more then 30% of their calories from total fat
    • -increase the proportion of persons aged 2 years and older who consume less than 10% of their total calories from saturated fat
  13. important points:
    -diets low in saturated fat are recommended for good health
    -however, "low fat" or "low saturated fat" is not the only consideration when planning a healthy diet
    -not all low fat foods are nutritious
    -a high fat food or meal can be "balanced out" by eating low fat foods at the same meal or for other meals and snacks eaten during the day
    • scientific research is the basis for dietary recommendation
    • -experimental research establishes a cause and effect relationship
  14. controlled study
    -subjects are placed into two groups and are matched for similar risk factors
    -one group is given a treatment
    -one group is given a placebo or no treatment
    -the differences in the effect are measured at the end of the study
    -submitted for statistical analyis
    • scientific literature
    • -the results are published in a PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL
    • -a medical or scientific journal recognized by experts in that field of study
  15. goals:
    to consume a diet that supplies appropriate amounts of the essential nutrients, fiber and calories without an excess of fat, salt or sugar
    -to perform sufficient physical activity to balance out the foods we eat
    • standards and tools used to plan healthy diets:
    • -dietary reference intakes (DRI) --formally known as RDA--
    • -dietary guidelines
    • -food guide pyramid
    • -daily values on food labels
  16. guidelines for interpreting results:
    -the result of a single study do not prove anything or disprove anything
    -studies need to be repeated by other scientists and a consensus developed
    -prudent recommendations are made when sufficient evidence becomes available
    -the recommendations is likely to do some good and cause no harm
    a person wanting the whole story on a nutrition topic would be wise to seek peer-viewed journals
  17. dietary reference intakes (DRI)
    -RDA-Recommended Dietary Allowances
    -AI-Adequate Intakes
    -UL-Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
    -EAR-Estimated Avg Requirements
    • Nutrient Requirement
    • -the amount of a nutrient that will just prevent the development of deficiency signs
    • -distinguished from the DRI, which is a generous allowance with a margin of safety
  18. RDA for calories
    -based on the calorie needs for the Reference Man and Woman in each age group
    -based on the avg individual with light activity
    -your needs may differ
    • Aim for a healthy weight
    • Be physically active each day
    • Let the pyramid guide your food choices
    • Choose variety of grains daily, esp whole grains
    • Choose a variety of fruits and veggies daily
    • Keep food safe to eat
    • Choose a diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol and moderate in total fat
    • Choose beverages and foods that limit your intake of sugars
    • Choose and prepare foods with less salt
    • If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation
  19. focus of DRI
    -prevent nutrient deficiencies
    -support optimal activies within the body
    -prevent chronic diseases
    • sample diet plan:
    • food..............servings
    • bread.........6.............9..........11
    • veggies ......3............4...........5
    • fruit............2............3............4
    • milk.........2-3........2-3..........2-3
    • meat...........5............6...........7
    • kcal.......1600.......2200.......2800
  20. food pyramid daily food guide:
    -a foundation for diet planning
    -allows you to obtain adequate amounts of all the essential nutrients
    -essential nutrients are distributed among 5 food groups
    • advantages:
    • -simple
    • -flexible-can be used by vegetarians
    • -emphasizes grains and produce
    • -de-emphasizes meats and animal produces
  21. disadvantages:
    food choices are not limited to the most nutrient dense foods in each group
    -a person may consistantly choose low nutrient foods and fail to meet the day's needs for some nutrients
    • number of servings and serving sizes
    • -less active people need the lower end of the range of servings (1600 kcal per day)
    • -physically active people need the higher end of the range of servings (2800 kcal/day)
    • -food pyramid serving sizes are different from what you may consider a "helping" or the amount that you would recieve in a restaurant
  22. sharing ethnic food is a way of sharing culture
    -mexican is the most popular ethnic cuisines int he US. followed by Italian
    • food labels: most food labels (depends on the package size) must contain the following:
    • -the ingredient list
    • -the nutrition facts panel

    • Ingredients are listed in decending order of predominance by weight. the ingredient that is listed first is the ingred. that makes up most of the food and so on down the line
    • -whatever is listed first is the ingredient that makes up most of the food
  23. nutrition facts section:
    -nutrient and calorie content per serving
    -daily values (DV)
    • Daily values
    • -DV list recommended intakes of nutrients for consumers
    • -DV allow the consumer to compare the nutrient content of one food to another and to see how a food fits into a healthy diet
  24. DV on food labels based on a 2000 cal diet:
    -consumers should limit their intakes of
    -total fat to 65 grams per day
    - sat fat to 20 grams per day
    -cholesterol to 300 mg per day
    -sodium to 2400 mg per day
    • health claims approved by the FDA for food labels:
    • -for approved health claims to be allowed on food labels they must meet strict guidelines established by the FDA and be well supported by available scientific research
    • -only 14 healthy claims have been approved
  25. example of model health claims provided by the FDA:
    -folate and neural tube defects- women who consume adequate amounts of folate daily thruout their childbearing years may reduce their risk of having a child with a neural tube birth defect
    • health claims approved:
    • -in order to make a health claim, a food cannot contain any substance that increases risk of disease
    • -strict guidelines apply for the use of the word "healthy" as apart of a product name
  26. structure/function claims used on supplements
    -appear without FDA approval
    -the foods need not be healthy
    -the ingredients need not to proved effective or safe
    -the claim must not mention a specific disease
    -must have the FDA disclaimer
    functional foods currently on the market promise to "enhance mood" "promote relaxation and good karma" "increase alertness" and "improve memory" among other claims
  27. claims used on supplements
    -claims not approved by the FDA are often used in advertisements and commercials
    • Who is looking out for consumer concerns?
    • the FDA is the major agency responsible for monitoring the food supply
  28. Food-borne illness (food poisoning)
    -an illness transmitted to humans thru food
    -caused by microorganisms which are infectious or produce poisonous substances
    -a true hazard, harm is possible under normal conditions of use
    -affects the most people per year
    -often mistakenly id'd as the flu
    - symptoms include: abdominal cramps, headache, vomiting, diarrhea and fever
    -people at risk for fatality are the young, old, ill and malnourished
    • botulism
    • -a severe and potentially fatal neurotoxin
    • -cuased by toxins produced by bacteria which grow inside of improperly canned or vacummed packed foods or oils flavored with herbs and stored at room temp
    • -grows in the absence of oxygen, in non-acidic conditions
    • -warning signs represent a true medical emergency
  29. food borne illneses
    -salmonella
    -hep a
    -e coli
    -campylobacteriosis
    -listeriosis
    • food safety from the farm to the table
    • -pasteurization
    • -haccp plan
    • -fda guidance doc on biosecurity
  30. food safety in the kitchen
    food provides the ideal conditions for bacterial growth:
    -warmth (between 40-140* is the dangerous zone)
    -moisture
    -nutrients
    • four keepers for prevention
    • -keep hot foods hot
    • -keep cold foods cold
    • -keep raw foods separate
    • -keep your kitchen clean
  31. 2-40-140 rule
    -do not keep foods between 40 and 140 degrees for more than 2 hours
    -if the temp is 90* or higher, the time limit is dropped to 1 hour
    • keep hot foods hot
    • -cook foods to a temp that kills microbes
    • -cook foods must be held at 140* or higher until served
    • -refrigerate cooked foods immediately after serving or within two hours after serving
    • -use shallow containers to help food chill faster and eavenly
  32. keep cold foods cold
    -store cold foods at 40* or less
    -store frozen foods at 0*
    -defrost foods in the fridge
    -tote lunches in a thermal lunch bag or box
    • keep raw foods separate:
    • -keep raw foods (meats, eggs, and seafood) and their juices away from ready to eat foods
    • -prevent cross contamination
    • -do not prepare raw food dishes on the same board or use the same utensils as were used to prepare raw meat
    • -wash your heads in hot soapy water for a minimum of 20 seconds before handling food and after handling meats
  33. keep your kitchen clean
    -launder and replace sponges and towels regularly
    -wash cutting boards thoroughly-use dishwasher or diluted bleach
    • meats
    • -ground beef and pork should be cooked to 160*F
    • -do not rely on color
  34. which foods are the most likely to make people sick?
    -seafood - raw or lightly steamed seafood such as oysters and sushi
    -raw eggs -salmonella
    -picnic foods and lunch bags -chopped salads with mayo spoil easily
    • making wise food choices
    • -choose whole grains, fruits and veggis as much as possible.
    • -if choosing meats, eat poultry without skin, fish, and lean cuts of beef
  35. general rule of thumb or shopping
    -which choosing processed foods, choose ones that have been improved nutritionally, for ex: skim milk or other low fat dairy produces
    • making wise choices
    • -the nutrient content of processed foods is ranked on a continuum
    • -low nutrient density to high nutrient density
  36. example of ranking foods on a continuum
    -corn on the cob-canned corn-caramel corn
    -baked potato-mashed potato-potato chips
    -100%WWB- white bread-doughnut
    • making wise food choices
    • -commercially prepared whole grain bread, frozen bags of veggies and frozen meat allow the consumer to eat a wide variety of nutritious foods
  37. food prep
    -commercial food processing-vitamin losses rarely exceed 25%
    -foods prepared at home- losses of 60-75% are not unusual
    • steps to prevent nutrient losses in produce:
    • -chill fresh produce to slow down enzymatic destruction of nutrients
    • -most fruits and veggies should be vine rippened
    • -keep cold until eaten
  38. steps to prevent losses of riboflavin
    -losses of riboflavin due to exposure to light
    -buy milk in carboard containments
    -store rice/pasta in cuboards out of light
    • steps to prevent losses of vit c in produce
    • -once cut, do not expose to air, destroyed by oxygen
    • -store in air tight container or wrapper

    wrap foods tightly and refrigerate them

    space foods to allow chilled air to circulate around them
  39. to prevent nutrient losses in water
    -minerals and water-soluble vitamins in fresh cut veggies readily dissolve into water used for washing or for boiling
    -dont soak veggies
    -steam veggies or cook them in a microwave oven
    -if cooking potatoes in water-add them to boiling water, not cold
    -avoid high temp with long cooking times
    -cut veggies after washing (except broccoli and cualiflower)
    -stirfry in small amount of oil or water
    • summary
    • most vitamin losses under reasonable conditions are not catastrophic-with careful food prep you will consume sufficient quanities of nutrients
  40. legal tolerance limits:
    the amount of a pesticide residue allowed to be in a food when a pesticide is used according to label directions
    -this amount is generally 1/100 to 1/1000, the level found to cause no effect in lab animals
    • pesticides
    • PROS:
    • -kills pests and preserves crops
    • -violators of regulations are fined
    • -FDA test foods for excessive pesticide residue

    • CONS:
    • -pollute water, soil and air
    • -accumulate in the food chain
    • -poisons are harmful to farm workers
    • -pests develop resistance
    • -children's health at a high risk from residues
    • -"circle of poison"
    • -shortage of FDA inspectors
  41. steve consumed a turkey breast sandwich he made with whole wheat bread and light mayo for lunch.
    the sandwich contained 46 grams of carbohydrate, 19 grams of protein and 15 grams of fat.

    steve consumed how many calories from carbs?
    184
  42. steve consumed a turkey breast sandwich he made with whole wheat bread and light mayo for lunch.
    the sandwich contained 46 grams of carbohydrate, 19 grams of protein and 15 grams of fat.

    steve consumed how many calories from protein?
    76
  43. steve consumed a turkey breast sandwich he made with whole wheat bread and light mayo for lunch.
    the sandwich contained 46 grams of carbohydrate, 19 grams of protein and 15 grams of fat.

    steve consumed how many calories from fat?
    135
  44. steve consumed a turkey breast sandwich he made with whole wheat bread and light mayo for lunch.
    the sandwich contained 46 grams of carbohydrate, 19 grams of protein and 15 grams of fat.

    steve consumed how many total calories?
    395
  45. factors that influence one's food choices include:

    a. convenience
    b. preference
    c. money
    d. all of the above
    d. all of the above
  46. Lori is a 29 year old full time college student. she works part time as a waitress. Lori is trying to make more nutritious choices but her diet still needs improvement. Below is a list of Lori's food choices for one day

    breakfast: 1 whole (2 halves) english muffin with 1 tbsp of jelly and 1 cup of 1% milk

    morning snack: 1 cup yogurt and 20 oz soda from the vending machine

    lunch: tuna salad sandwich =
    2 slices of whole wheat bread
    1/2 can of tuna packed in water (3 oz of tuna)
    2 tbsp of light mayo
    20 oz of soda

    afternoon snack: 1 bag of m&m's and 20 oz of soda

    dinner:
    1-3 oz grilled chicken breast
    1 cup of rice
    1 small dinner roll with pat of soft margarine
    16 oz of swt tea

    evening snack: 1 cup of 1% milk and 2 cups of cheerios

    Lori drinks too much soda. What suggestions would you make for Lori to help her practice moderation?

    A. drink swt tea at meals and snacks instead of soda
    B. drink only 1% milk at meals and snacks instead of soda
    C. drink water, 1% milk or 100% fruit juice at snacks and meals and choose soda occasionally
    D. drink only 100% fruit juice at meals and snacks instead of soda
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Lori is a 29 year old full time college student. she works part time as a
    waitress. Lori is trying to make more nutritious choices but her diet
    still needs improvement. Below is a list of Lori's food choices for one
    day

    breakfast: 1 whole (2 halves) english muffin with 1 tbsp of jelly and 1 cup of 1% milk

    morning snack: 1 cup yogurt and 20 oz soda from the vending machine

    lunch: tuna salad sandwich =
    2 slices of whole wheat bread
    1/2 can of tuna packed in water (3 oz of tuna)
    2 tbsp of light mayo
    20 oz of soda

    afternoon snack: 1 bag of m&m's and 20 oz of soda

    dinner:
    1-3 oz grilled chicken breast
    1 cup of rice
    1 small dinner roll with pat of soft margarine
    16 oz of swt tea

    evening snack: 1 cup of 1% milk and 2 cups of cheerios

    Lori's excuse for not choosing to eat nutrient dense snacks is that she doesn't have enough time. You, however, point out to Lori that she did well with making time to get to the grocery store and also with purchasing easy to prepare foods such as whole wheat bread, tuna, chicken, cereal, milk and yogurt. You make the suggestion to Lori that she:

    A. forget grocery shopping and rely on vitamins and mineral supplements to give her energy and nutrients
    B. could bring fat free cookies and low fat potato chips to school
    C. should continue to buy junk food from the vending machines since her time is so limited
    D. could easily pick up some bananas, oranges, and individual boxes of fruit juice
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Lori is a 29 year old full time college student. she works part time as a
    waitress. Lori is trying to make more nutritious choices but her diet
    still needs improvement. Below is a list of Lori's food choices for one
    day

    breakfast: 1 whole (2 halves) english muffin with 1 tbsp of jelly and 1 cup of 1% milk

    morning snack: 1 cup yogurt and 20 oz soda from the vending machine

    lunch: tuna salad sandwich =
    2 slices of whole wheat bread
    1/2 can of tuna packed in water (3 oz of tuna)
    2 tbsp of light mayo
    20 oz of soda

    afternoon snack: 1 bag of m&m's and 20 oz of soda

    dinner:
    1-3 oz grilled chicken breast
    1 cup of rice
    1 small dinner roll with pat of soft margarine
    16 oz of swt tea

    evening snack: 1 cup of 1% milk and 2 cups of cheerios

    According to the Food Guide Pyramid, Lori met the recommended number of servings per day for which food groups?

    A. the fruit group/the veggies group/the sweets, alcohol and fats group
    B. the meat and meat alternative group/the fruit group/the veggie group
    C. the bread, pasta, rice and cereal group/the fats, sweets and alcohol group/and the fruit group
    D. the bread, pasta, rice and cereal group/the meat and meat alternative group/the milk, yogurt and cheese group
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Lori is a 29 year old full time college student. she works part time as a
    waitress. Lori is trying to make more nutritious choices but her diet
    still needs improvement. Below is a list of Lori's food choices for one
    day

    breakfast: 1 whole (2 halves) english muffin with 1 tbsp of jelly and 1 cup of 1% milk

    morning snack: 1 cup yogurt and 20 oz soda from the vending machine

    lunch: tuna salad sandwich =
    2 slices of whole wheat bread
    1/2 can of tuna packed in water (3 oz of tuna)
    2 tbsp of light mayo
    20 oz of soda

    afternoon snack: 1 bag of m&m's and 20 oz of soda

    dinner:
    1-3 oz grilled chicken breast
    1 cup of rice
    1 small dinner roll with pat of soft margarine
    16 oz of swt tea

    evening snack: 1 cup of 1% milk and 2 cups of cheerios

    According to the Food Guide Pyramid, Lori's diet provides adequate amounts of which key nutrients

    A. all vitamins and minerals
    B. iron only
    C. calcium, protein, complex carbohydrates
    D. vit A, vit C, and folate
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Lori is a 29 year old full time college student. she works part time as a
    waitress. Lori is trying to make more nutritious choices but her diet
    still needs improvement. Below is a list of Lori's food choices for one
    day

    breakfast: 1 whole (2 halves) english muffin with 1 tbsp of jelly and 1 cup of 1% milk

    morning snack: 1 cup yogurt and 20 oz soda from the vending machine

    lunch: tuna salad sandwich =
    2 slices of whole wheat bread
    1/2 can of tuna packed in water (3 oz of tuna)
    2 tbsp of light mayo
    20 oz of soda

    afternoon snack: 1 bag of m&m's and 20 oz of soda

    dinner:
    1-3 oz grilled chicken breast
    1 cup of rice
    1 small dinner roll with pat of soft margarine
    16 oz of swt tea

    evening snack: 1 cup of 1% milk and 2 cups of cheerios

    According to the Food Guide Pyramid, Lori may not be eating enough of which key essential nutrients?

    A. vitB12, and complex carbohydrates, vitC
    B. vitC and vitA
    C. sugar, fat and alcohol
    D. calcium, vitD, protein and complex carbohydrates
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. Lori is a 29 year old full time college student. she works part time as a
    waitress. Lori is trying to make more nutritious choices but her diet
    still needs improvement. Below is a list of Lori's food choices for one
    day

    breakfast: 1 whole (2 halves) english muffin with 1 tbsp of jelly and 1 cup of 1% milk

    morning snack: 1 cup yogurt and 20 oz soda from the vending machine

    lunch: tuna salad sandwich =
    2 slices of whole wheat bread
    1/2 can of tuna packed in water (3 oz of tuna)
    2 tbsp of light mayo
    20 oz of soda

    afternoon snack: 1 bag of m&m's and 20 oz of soda

    dinner:
    1-3 oz grilled chicken breast
    1 cup of rice
    1 small dinner roll with pat of soft margarine
    16 oz of swt tea

    evening snack: 1 cup of 1% milk and 2 cups of cheerios

    according to the Food Guide Pyramid, Lori did NOT meet the recommended number of servings from which food group?
    A. the meat and meat alternative group/fruit group/the milk, yogurt and cheese group
    B. the fruit group/and the veggies group
    C. the milk, yogurt and cheese group/the fruit group/the bread, pasta, rice and cereal group
    D. the fats sweet and alcohol group/the meat and meat alternative group/the veggies group
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Lori is a 29 year old full time college student. she works part time as a
    waitress. Lori is trying to make more nutritious choices but her diet
    still needs improvement. Below is a list of Lori's food choices for one
    day

    breakfast: 1 whole (2 halves) english muffin with 1 tbsp of jelly and 1 cup of 1% milk

    morning snack: 1 cup yogurt and 20 oz soda from the vending machine

    lunch: tuna salad sandwich =
    2 slices of whole wheat bread
    1/2 can of tuna packed in water (3 oz of tuna)
    2 tbsp of light mayo
    20 oz of soda

    afternoon snack: 1 bag of m&m's and 20 oz of soda

    dinner:
    1-3 oz grilled chicken breast
    1 cup of rice
    1 small dinner roll with pat of soft margarine
    16 oz of swt tea

    evening snack: 1 cup of 1% milk and 2 cups of cheerios

    To help Lori meet the guidelines for each food group in the Food Guide Pyramid you would recommend she
    A. drink 2 cups of milk at breakfast for a high energy boost and extra protein
    B. add 1 cup of orange juice for breakfast, and 1/2 cup of raw baby carrots at lunch, a banana instead of m&ms's for an afternoon snack and 1 cup of broccoli at dinner
    C. eat 2 chicken breasts at dinner intsead of 1 and skip the rice
    D. eat low fat frozen yogurt for an evening snack instead of fat free cookies
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Blake is a 19 year old college student. He is living on his own for the first time. He just purchased his groceries and is on his way home. Blake bought eggs, milk, chicken and produce. While he is driving home, he passes a basketball court and sees his friends playing ball. He stops to check it out. His friends need another play for their team and ask him to join. Blake decides to join them and leaves the groceries in the car. When he finally arrives home 2.5 hours later, he is starving and cant wait to eat.

    Blake is at risk for food poisoning bc:

    A. cold foods were left unrefrigerated
    B. eggs and milk were put in a grocery bag
    C. a and c
    D. frozen foods were put in the same bag with canned goods
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Blake is a 19 year old college student. He is living on his own for the
    first time. He just purchased his groceries and is on his way home.
    Blake bought eggs, milk, chicken and produce. While he is driving home,
    he passes a basketball court and sees his friends playing ball. He stops
    to check it out. His friends need another play for their team and ask
    him to join. Blake decides to join them and leaves the groceries in the
    car. When he finally arrives home 2.5 hours later, he is starving and
    cant wait to eat.

    Blake is famished. He walks in the house, unpacks the groceries and then immediately starts to prepare chicken for dinner. Blake forgot to:

    A. read the food label
    B. check the temp inside the fridge
    C. wash his hands
    D. a and c
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Blake is a 19 year old college student. He is living on his own for the
    first time. He just purchased his groceries and is on his way home.
    Blake bought eggs, milk, chicken and produce. While he is driving home,
    he passes a basketball court and sees his friends playing ball. He stops
    to check it out. His friends need another play for their team and ask
    him to join. Blake decides to join them and leaves the groceries in the
    car. When he finally arrives home 2.5 hours later, he is starving and
    cant wait to eat.

    Blake has never before roasted a chicken. He calls you and asks if you know when a chicken is cooked. In order to prevent food poisoning, you tell him:

    A. the chicken is done when there are no more juices in the pan
    B. the chicken is done when it is golden brown
    C. to use a meat thermometer
    D. it takes one hour
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. Blake is a 19 year old college student. He is living on his own for the
    first time. He just purchased his groceries and is on his way home.
    Blake bought eggs, milk, chicken and produce. While he is driving home,
    he passes a basketball court and sees his friends playing ball. He stops
    to check it out. His friends need another play for their team and ask
    him to join. Blake decides to join them and leaves the groceries in the
    car. When he finally arrives home 2.5 hours later, he is starving and
    cant wait to eat.

    Blake wants to have a salad with dinner. he uses a paper towel to wipe off the same cutting board and knife used to prepare the chicken. He then uses the knife and cutting board to chop up the salad ingredients. Blake is:

    A. a and c
    B. at risk for botulism
    C. at risk for food poisoning bc of cross contamination
    D. at risk for heart disease
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. Blake is a 19 year old college student. He is living on his own for the
    first time. He just purchased his groceries and is on his way home.
    Blake bought eggs, milk, chicken and produce. While he is driving home,
    he passes a basketball court and sees his friends playing ball. He stops
    to check it out. His friends need another play for their team and ask
    him to join. Blake decides to join them and leaves the groceries in the
    car. When he finally arrives home 2.5 hours later, he is starving and
    cant wait to eat.

    It is 7pm when Blake finishes dinner. He decides to do his hw before putting the leftovers away and cleaning up. He finishes hw at 9:30 and then proceeds to clean up. Blake is:

    A. at risk for food poisoning bc he used shallow containers
    B. at risk for food poisoning bc he did not refrigerate the leftover food promptly
    C. at risk for developing vitamin deficiencies bc the produce was at room temp
    d. all of the above
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. Sarah is a 20 year old full time college student. She works as a part time waitress. She is trying to eat healthier by following the food pyramid but her diet still needs improvement:

    breakfast:
    2 cups of frosted mini wheats, 1 bagel (2 halves) with 2 tsp of margarine, 1 cup of skim milk and 1 banana

    lunch: chicken and veggie stir fry =
    1.5 cups of white rice, 3 oz of chicken cut into strips, 1 cup of veggies and flavorful sauce

    dinner:
    3oz of roast beef, 1 cup of broccoli, 1/2 cup of mashed potatoes with one ladle of gravy, 1 dinner roll and 1 cup of skim milk

    snacks:
    one banana, 1 apple, and one cup of yogurt

    How many servings did Sarah eat from the bread, cereal, rice and pasta group?
    8

    • 2 cups cereal = 2 servings
    • 1 bagal = 2 servings
    • 1.5 cups rice =3 servings
    • 1 dinner roll = 1 servings
  59. Sarah is a 20 year old full time college student. She works as a part time waitress. She is trying to eat healthier by following the food pyramid but her diet still needs improvement:

    breakfast:2 cups of frosted mini wheats, 1 bagel (2 halves) with 2 tsp of margarine, 1 cup of skim milk and 1 banana

    lunch: chicken and veggie stir fry =1.5 cups of white rice, 3 oz of chicken cut into strips, 1 cup of veggies and flavorful sauce

    dinner: 3oz of roast beef, 1 cup of broccoli, 1/2 cup of mashed potatoes with one ladle of gravy, 1 dinner roll and 1 cup of skim milk

    snacks:one banana, 1 apple, and one cup of yogurt

    How many servings did Sarah eat from the fruit group?
    3

    • 2 bananas = 2 servings
    • 1 apple =1 serving
  60. Sarah is a 20 year old full time college student. She works as a part
    time waitress. She is trying to eat healthier by following the food
    pyramid but her diet still needs improvement:

    breakfast:2 cups of frosted mini wheats, 1 bagel (2 halves) with 2 tsp of margarine, 1 cup of skim milk and 1 banana

    lunch: chicken and veggie stir fry =1.5 cups of white rice, 3 oz of
    chicken cut into strips, 1 cup of veggies and flavorful sauce

    dinner: 3oz of roast beef, 1 cup of broccoli, 1/2 cup of mashed potatoes
    with one ladle of gravy, 1 dinner roll and 1 cup of skim milk

    snacks:one banana, 1 apple, and one cup of yogurt

    How many servings did Sarah eat from the veggies group?
    5

    • 1 cup of veggies = 2 servings
    • 1 cup of broccoli = 2 servings
    • 1/2 cup of mashed potatoes = 1 serving
  61. Sarah is a 20 year old full time college student. She works as a part
    time waitress. She is trying to eat healthier by following the food
    pyramid but her diet still needs improvement:

    breakfast:2 cups of frosted mini wheats, 1 bagel (2 halves) with 2 tsp of margarine, 1 cup of skim milk and 1 banana

    lunch: chicken and veggie stir fry =1.5 cups of white rice, 3 oz of
    chicken cut into strips, 1 cup of veggies and flavorful sauce

    dinner: 3oz of roast beef, 1 cup of broccoli, 1/2 cup of mashed potatoes
    with one ladle of gravy, 1 dinner roll and 1 cup of skim milk

    snacks:one banana, 1 apple, and one cup of yogurt

    How many servings did Sarah eat from the milk group?
    3

    • 2 cups of skim milk = 2 servings
    • 1 cup of yogurt = 1 serving
  62. Sarah is a 20 year old full time college student. She works as a part
    time waitress. She is trying to eat healthier by following the food
    pyramid but her diet still needs improvement:

    breakfast:2 cups of frosted mini wheats, 1 bagel (2 halves) with 2 tsp of margarine, 1 cup of skim milk and 1 banana

    lunch: chicken and veggie stir fry =1.5 cups of white rice, 3 oz of
    chicken cut into strips, 1 cup of veggies and flavorful sauce

    dinner: 3oz of roast beef, 1 cup of broccoli, 1/2 cup of mashed potatoes
    with one ladle of gravy, 1 dinner roll and 1 cup of skim milk

    snacks:one banana, 1 apple, and one cup of yogurt

    How many total meant servings (3oz = 1 serving) did Sarah consume for the entire day?
    2

    • 3 oz of chicken = 1 serving
    • 3 oz of roast beef = 1 serving
  63. Sarah is a 20 year old full time college student. She works as a part
    time waitress. She is trying to eat healthier by following the food
    pyramid but her diet still needs improvement:

    breakfast:2 cups of frosted mini wheats, 1 bagel (2 halves) with 2 tsp of margarine, 1 cup of skim milk and 1 banana

    lunch: chicken and veggie stir fry =1.5 cups of white rice, 3 oz of
    chicken cut into strips, 1 cup of veggies and flavorful sauce

    dinner: 3oz of roast beef, 1 cup of broccoli, 1/2 cup of mashed potatoes
    with one ladle of gravy, 1 dinner roll and 1 cup of skim milk

    snacks:one banana, 1 apple, and one cup of yogurt

    If Sarah did not consume at least 2-3 servings from the meat group her diet might be lacking in:

    A. b and c
    B. fiber
    C. protein
    D. iron
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. Sarah is a 20 year old full time college student. She works as a part
    time waitress. She is trying to eat healthier by following the food
    pyramid but her diet still needs improvement:

    breakfast:2 cups of frosted mini wheats, 1 bagel (2 halves) with 2 tsp of margarine, 1 cup of skim milk and 1 banana

    lunch: chicken and veggie stir fry =1.5 cups of white rice, 3 oz of
    chicken cut into strips, 1 cup of veggies and flavorful sauce

    dinner: 3oz of roast beef, 1 cup of broccoli, 1/2 cup of mashed potatoes
    with one ladle of gravy, 1 dinner roll and 1 cup of skim milk

    snacks:one banana, 1 apple, and one cup of yogurt

    According to the Food Guide Pyramid, Sarah consumed within the recommended number of servings from
    a. the meat group
    b. the bread, cereal, rice and pasta group
    c. the fruit group
    d. all of the above
    d.
  65. Which of the following statements best explains why the "fats, oils and sweets" are located on the top of the pyramid?

    A. bc they should take top priority in your diet
    B. bc they are an important food group
    C. bc you should "top off" all your meals with a little fat or a little sugar
    D. to illustrate that they should take up the least amount of space in your diet
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. Sean is an 18 year old freshman and is living on his own for the first time. Today, Sean woke up late and barely had time for breakfast. He quickly ate 2 eggo waffles and took a banana and a cup of orange juice to consume on the way to school

    how many calories are in 2 waffles?
    140
  67. Sean is an 18 year old freshman and is living on his own for the first
    time. Today, Sean woke up late and barely had time for breakfast. He
    quickly ate 2 eggo waffles and took a banana and a cup of orange juice
    to consume on the way to school


    What percent of the daily value for fiber is contained in one serving of waffles?
    11%
  68. Sean is an 18 year old freshman and is living on his own for the first
    time. Today, Sean woke up late and barely had time for breakfast. He
    quickly ate 2 eggo waffles and took a banana and a cup of orange juice
    to consume on the way to school


    One serving contains:


    A. 5 grams of protein
    B. 2 grams of fiber
    C. 430 mg of cholesterol
    d. all of the above
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. Sean is an 18 year old freshman and is living on his own for the first
    time. Today, Sean woke up late and barely had time for breakfast. He
    quickly ate 2 eggo waffles and took a banana and a cup of orange juice
    to consume on the way to school


    The main ingredient in eggo waffles is:
    enriched wheat flour
  70. Sean is an 18 year old freshman and is living on his own for the first
    time. Today, Sean woke up late and barely had time for breakfast. He
    quickly ate 2 eggo waffles and took a banana and a cup of orange juice
    to consume on the way to school


    If Sean ate one serving of waffles, how many milligrams of sodium would he consume?
    430
  71. Sean is an 18 year old freshman and is living on his own for the first
    time. Today, Sean woke up late and barely had time for breakfast. He
    quickly ate 2 eggo waffles and took a banana and a cup of orange juice
    to consume on the way to school


    If Sean ate one serving of waffles, what percent of the daily value for fat would he consume?
    4%
  72. The percent Daily Value on a food label:

    A. shows what the food is made up of by weight
    B. applies only to people on dietary restrictions
    C. helps consumers compare the nutrient content of one food to another
    D. are your individual recommendationgs
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. When reading news reports regarding nutrition, one should keep in mind:

    a. if the study being written about was published in a peer-reviewed journal
    b. the type and number of subjects studied
    c. if the data was evaluated with the results of other recent studies in mind
    d. all of the above
    d.
  74. reasons you need to listen to news reports about nutrition with a critical ear include:

    a. often times report may not have a background in science and may inaccurately report or distort the findings of the research
    b. the media often sensationalizes the findings of a study
    c. sometimes scientists leak their findings to the news media before the results have stood up to rigorous review by their peers
    d. all of the above
    d.
  75. which type of study would be among the most powerful tools used in nutrition research?

    A. epidemiological studies
    B. a and b
    C. case studies
    D. intervention studies or laboratory studies
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  76. True/False

    America's trend toward colossal cuisine may be one reason why there are so many overweight people in our country
    true
  77. True/False

    Vitamins and minerals contain energy
    false
  78. True/False

    Pesticide residues accumulate in the fat on meat and the skin on fish and chicken
    true
  79. True/False

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommended aiming for a healthy weight and to be physically active each day
    true
  80. True/False

    to lower your risk of food poisoning you should keeo hot foods hot, cold foods cold, raw foods separate and keep your kitchen clean
    true
  81. True/False

    it is safe to marinate meat on the counter
    false
  82. True/False

    ground beef and ground pork should be cooked to a temp of 160*F
    true
  83. True/False

    consuming raw or undercooked eggs may increase your risk for botulism
    false
  84. True/False

    nonfat milk has a lower nutrient density than whole milk bc it has been watered down
    false
  85. True/False

    Testimonies regarding supplements for bodybuilding are valid sources of nutrition info
    false
  86. True/False

    phytochemicals are compounds found in fruits and veggies which may help to prevent certain chronic diseases
    true
  87. True/False

    The Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended daily intakes of nutrients for healthy individuals living in the US and canada
    true
  88. True/False

    based on a 2000-cal diet, the DV for saturated fat intake is 20 grams perday
    true
  89. True/False

    it is safe to thaw frozen meat or poultry on your kitchen counter
    false
  90. True/False

    the Tolerable Upper Intake Levels should be used by consumers who take supplements to ensure that they are getting enough extra vitamins and minerals
    false
  91. Accessory Organs that Aid Digestion:
    Salivary glands
    -donate a starch-digesting enzyme
    -donate a trace of fat-digesting enzyme (important to infants
    Liver
    -manufactures bile, a detergent-like substance that facilitates digestion of fats
    Gallbladder
    -stores bile until needed
    Bile Duct
    -conducts bile to small intestine
    Pancreatic Duct
    -conducts pancreatic juice into small intestine
    Pancreas
    -manufactures enzymes to digest all energy-yielding nutrients
    -releases bicarbonate to neutrilize stomach acid that enters small intestine
    • Digestive Tract Organs that Contain the Food
    • Mouth
    • -chews and mixes food with saliva
    • Esophagus
    • -passes food to stomach
    • Stomach
    • -adds acid, enzymes and fluid
    • -churns, mixes and grinds food to a liquid mass
    • Small Intestine
    • -secretes enzymes that digest carbohydrate, fat, and protein
    • -cells lining intestine absorb nutrients into blood and lymph
    • Large Intestine (colon)
    • -reabsorbs water and minerals
    • -passes waste (fiber, bacteria, any unabsorbed nutrients) and some water to rectum
    • Rectum
    • -stores wastes prior to elimination
    • Anus
    • -holds rectum closed
    • -opens to allow elimination
  92. Functions of the Digestive Tract
    -proteints to amino acids
    -carbohydrates to sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose)
    -fat to monoglycerides and free fatty acids
    -to absorb nutrients into body fluids for delivery to body tissues (nourishment)
    -to concentrate and eliminate waste
    • Two types of digestion:
    • -mechanical
    • breaks food apart by grinding and mashing
    • -chemical
    • breaks food apart by enzymes and water
  93. Mechanical Digestion
    -functions are to chew and crush food
    -starts in the mouth
    -food is chewed and mixed with saliva for easy swallowing without choking
    • A normal swallow:
    • the epiglottis acts as a flap to seal the entrance to the lungs (trachea) and direct food to the stomach via the esophagus

    • Choking:
    • a choking person cannot speak or gasp bc food lodged in the trachea blocks the passage of air.
  94. Persitalsis:
    -swallowing food stimulates peristalsis
    -a wavelike series of muscular contractions that pushes food thru the digestive tract
    • Stomach:
    • -mashes food into a fine paste called chyme
    • -the stomach forcefully squirts very small amounts of chyme into the small intestine at a time
    • -stomach empties within a few hours after a meal
  95. Cardiac Sphincter:
    -a ring of circular muscle between the esophagus and the stomach
    -it keeps stomach contents from backing up into the espohagus (heartburn)
    • Pyloric Valve:
    • -the circular muscle of the lower stomach that regulates the flow of chyme into the small intestine
  96. Small intestine:
    -digestion is mainly chemical not mechanical
    -long in length, small in diameter
    -lining is wrinkled into folds to increase the surface area
    • Large intestine:
    • -receives waste material, no mechanical digestion of food
    • -concentrates feces from waste material and fiber
  97. Chemical digestion:
    -uses enzymes and water to break food into its smallest components
    • Mouth:
    • -salivary glands secrete saliva which contains the enzyme "salivary amylase"
    • -salivary amylase starts the breakdown of starch
  98. Stomach secretions
    -gastric juice
    -mucus
    • Gastric juice:
    • -is a mixture of water, hydrochloric acid and the protein digesting enzymes "pepsin"
    • -starts protein digestion by providing the acid environment needed to uncoil proteins (opens up protein molecules for attack by enzymes)
  99. Mucus
    a slippery coating that protects stomach cells from exposure to gastric juice
    • digestion of starch and fat in stomach
    • -starch digestion stops temporarily here due to the acid environment
    • -very little fat digestion takes place in the stomach
    • -fat forms a layer on top of the watery chyme
    • -fat leaves the stomach LAST
  100. Small intestine
    -major site of chemical digestion and nutrient absorption:
    -when chyme enters in the small intestine:
    -the gallbladder releases bile into the sm. intestine
    -the pancreas releases pancreatic juices into the sm. intestine
    • Bile
    • -made by the liver
    • -stored by the gallbladder
    • -function is to emulsify fat (allows fat to mix within the watery intestinal contents for enzymatic digestion)
  101. Pancreatic juice contains:
    -bicarbonate which neutralizes the acidic chyme
    -protein, fat and carbohydrate digesting enzymes
    • Villi
    • -fingerlike projections which cover the folds lining the small intestine
    • -increase surface area
    • -functions to absorb nutrients
  102. Crypts (Tubular Glands)
    -located between the villi
    -secrete digestive enzymes which complete digestion by breaking down nutrients to their smallest components
    • Compleated digestion
    • -carbohydrate to sugars (glucose, fructose and galactose)
    • -protein to amino acid
    • -fat to monoglycerides and free fatty acids
  103. Absorption of nutrients into the Villi
    -nutrients are absorbed into the villi and transported to tissues thru body fluids
    -each villi contains:
    -capillary network
    -lymph vessel
    • Microvilli
    • -cover the villi
    • -hairlike projections that trap nutrients for transport into the villi
  104. Transport of Nutrients:
    -nutrients are transported thru body fluids
    -blood
    -lymph
    • Blood transports
    • -sugars (glucose, fructose and galactose)
    • -amino acids
    • -small molecules from fat digestion
    • -minerals and the water soluble vitamins

    • Lymph transports:
    • -large molecules from fat digestion
    • -the fat soluble vitamins
  105. Large intestine:
    -reabsorbs remaining water
    -fiber is excreted in the feces
    • Energy storage systems
    • carbohydrate stores:
    • -liver and muscle glycogen
    • -limited storage capacity

    • fat stores:
    • -adipose tissue
    • -umlimited storage capacity
  106. Use of liver glycogen:
    -body is designed to eat at 4-6 hour intervals
    -brain and nervous system rely on blood glucose for fuel
    -when you go longer than 4-6 hours without eating, your body uses liver glycogen to replenish blood glucose levels
    • Hormonal system
    • hormones are chemical messengers which are carried by the blood from one system of cells to another
  107. Blood glucose
    two hormones help to regulate blood glucose levels
    -insulin lowers blood glucose
    -glucagon increases blood glucose
    • insulin
    • -eating raises blood glucose levels
    • -in response to this changing condition, pancreas releases the hormone insulin
    • -insulin allows cells to take in blood glucose

    • glucagon
    • -you haven't eaten in 6 hrs and your blood glucose level starts to fall
    • -in response to this changing condition, pancreas secrets glucagon
    • -glucagon stimulates the liver to release glucose from its glycogen stores
  108. Fight or flight reaction
    an adaption of the body that enables it to respond to danger with increased strength and speed
    • Fight or flight reaction
    • -involves the hormone epinephrine
    • -epinephrine stimulates the release of glucose from both muscle and liver glycogen to supply a quick source of energy to stay and fight or flee the danger
  109. CARBOHYDRATES
    -are compounds of single sugars or multiples of single sugars
    -the name means carbon and H2O
    -shorthand = CHO
    • Dietary Sources
    • -plants - grains, fruit, veggies
    • -milk and yogurt
  110. Photosynthesis
    -plants combine H2O and CO2 in the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight to form sugars
    -energy from the sun becomes trapped in the chemical bonds that hold the six carbon atoms together in the sugar molecule
    • Functions of Glucose in plants
    • -provides energy for the work of all plant cells
    • -forms starch, the storage form of glucose in plants
  111. Types of Carbohydrates
    -simple sugars
    -complex carbohydrates
    • Simple sugars: two classes
    • -monosaccharides
    • -disaccharides
  112. Monosaccharides
    These are single molecules of sugars and include:
    -glucose
    -fructose
    -galactose
    • Disaccharides
    • These are 2 monosacchorides bonded together. Each includes a molecule of glucose:
    • -lactose -milk sugar
    • -maltose -malt sugar
    • -sucrose -table sugar
  113. Glucose
    the brain and nervous system rely exclusively on glucose as their energy source
    • Polysaccharides
    • -made of long strangs of glucose molecules
    • -also called Complex Carbohydrates
  114. Two types of Polysaccharides
    -plant (the starch and fiber found in plants)
    -nutritive for humans
    -human- glycogen stored in the liver and muscles
    • Complex CHO compared to refined sugars
    • -complex CHO supply many nutrients for the calories
    • -refined sugars provide very little nutrients for the calories
    • -called "empty calorie foods"
  115. Refined sugars
    -displace nutrient dense foods from the diet
    -you can only afford to eat high sugar foods if you have already met your nutrient needs for the say and still have calories to spend
    • Sugars on food labels
    • -the grams listed reflect both the added refined sugars and those that occur naturally in foods
    • -look at the order of the ingredients listed on the label. if many sugars are at the top of the list, the food is high in refined sugars
  116. Daily Value for complex CHO
    -60% of total calorie intake
    -300 g/day based on a 2000 calorie diet
    • Refined sugars Guidlines
    • the WHO guidlines for intake of refined sugars is 0-10% of total calorie intake
  117. Types of Dietary Fiber DF
    -water soluble
    -water insoluble
    • Water soluble fiber
    • -may help lower blood cholesterol
    • -dietary cholesterol is bound to water soluble fiber in the digestive tract and excreated in the feces

    • Sources of Water Soluble Fiber
    • -oats
    • -oat bran
    • -legumes
  118. Water Insoluble Fiber
    -may help to prevent constipation, diverticulites and colol cancer
    -stools are larger, softer and pass thru the large intestine more quickly and easily than in the small stools formed on a low fiber diet
    • Intakes of Dietary Fiber
    • -average intake = 15 grams per day
    • -daily value for fiber = 25 grams per day
  119. Recommended Sources of fiber
    -food sources are best bc they also contain nutrients
    -choose whole grains, veggies, fruit and legumes
    -do not overdose on fiber supplements
    • Guidlines for increasing fiber
    • -add gradually over a period of time
    • -incrase fluid intake
    • -add cooked veggies before raw
    • -slowly replace refined grains with whole grains
  120. Counting Grams of Fiber
    Food group Dietary Fiber
    Fruit 2g
    Whole grains 2g
    Veggies 2g
    Legumes 8g
    • The Wheat Kernel
    • Composed of:
    • -husk
    • -bran
    • -endosperm
    • -germ
  121. Refining Flour
    -removes the germ and the bran
    -causes losses of iron, thiamin, niacin, ribflavin, fiber and other nutrients
    -caused nutritional deficiencies in the early 1900s
    • The National Enrichment Act
    • All breads, rice, pasta, and cereals must be enriched with iron, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin
  122. Whole grain products
    -contain all the nutritive protions of the grain, the bran, the germ, and the endosperm
    -contain more magnesium, zinc, chromium, vitamin E and fiber then refined flour
    • Pathways of Glucose in the body
    • -all sugars are absorbed into the villi and transported to the liver via the portal vein
    • -liver converts galactose and fructose to glucose
    • -circulatory system (blood) transports glucose to body cells to provide energy
    • -inside cells, glucose molecules are metabolized and energy is released
  123. Functions of Carbohydrate
    -energy source for body cells
    -spares protein
    -prevents ketosis
    -forms glycogen
    -converted to body fat when consumed as surplus calories
    • Lactose Intolerance
    • the inability to digest the milk sugar "lactose"
    • -caused by lack of the digestive enzymes "lactase"

    • Symptoms include:
    • -nausea
    • -bloating
    • -diarrhea
    • -excessive gass

    • this is an inherited trait, seen in a large percentage of the world's population
    • -also may develop temporarily in the malnourished or sick

    • Affects people to differing degrees:
    • -small amounts may be well tolerated
    • -yogurt and cheese may be well tolerated
    • -may use the brands Lactaid or Dairy Ease capsules or drops
  124. Diabetes
    -characterized by elevated blood glucose, an inability to control blood glucose normally
    -due to inadequate amounts of insulin or insulin resistance

    -Type I aka "juvenile" or "insulin dependent"
    -Type II aka "adult onset" or "non-insulin dependent"
    • Type I
    • -a person produces no insulin or very little
    • -the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas
    • -accounts for 10-20% of cases
    • -occurs in childhood or early adulthood
    • -treatment: insulin shots required

    • Type II
    • -a person produces insulin but the body's cells are resistant to insulin's action
    • -occurence is related to obesity
    • -accounts for 90% of the cases
    • -occurs later in life and tends to run in families
    • -treatment: diet and exercise, oral medications, sometimes insulin shots
  125. Warning signs of diabetes
    -excessive thirst
    -excessive urination
    -excessive hunger or cravings
    -blurred vision
    -weight loss
    • conclusion
    • -physical activitiy is a key player in controlling diabetes
    • -regularly timed, balanced meals help hold blood glucose steady
    • -can artificial sweeteners help people lose weight?

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