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What are the 4 stages of Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) and their symptoms?
- Prodromal Stage-Whole body dose>100 RAD
- Symptoms- Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, starts w/in hours and last for a few days
- Latent Period-No ill effects >5000 RAD
- Sometimes mistaken for early recovery
Manifest-Dehydration, infection, hemorrhage, decrease in blood cell count
- Recovery or Death- Depends on dose and the amount of damage occurred
- Damage will not occur @ doses of 100 RAD or 1GY or less.
What is the dose amount for Hemopoietic, Gastrointestinal, and Cerebrovascular Syndrome?
- Hemopoietic-Blood is target 200-1000 RAD-2-10GY
- Cerebrovascular Syndrome->5000RAD -50GY
What are the characteristics and symptoms of Hemopoietic?
Hemopoietic-Anemia, Low RBC count, Leukopenia(decrease in WBC count), fever, infection, fatigue, purpura(hemorrhaging under skin)
What are the characteristics and symptoms of Gastrointestinal Syndrome (GIS)?
All symptoms of hemopoietic, electrolyte imbalance, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, electrolyte imbalance due to all of the liquids not being absorbed.
What are the characteristics and symptoms of cerebrovascular syndrome?
All of the effects with hemopoietic and GIS syndrome, edema, seizures, respiratory distress, shock, meningitis, strokes (causes intracranial pressure due to edema and causes the veins to rupture)
What is the relationship dose between the amount of dose received and survival time?
As the whole body radiation dose increases survival time decreases (INVERSE)
What are the effects on a person that receives a 100RAD dose?
Prodromal stage, you can recover and most likely wont die from this dose.
Which syndrome can a person recover from completely after exposure?
What are the cells that can be destroyed in the small intestine that results in a person's death?
Crypt Cells-They produce villi, which absorbs nutrients into the blood stream
What is LD50/30 and it's characteristics?
- 50% of those exposed will die within 30 days
- Humans are more radiosensitive than most other animals
What is the minimal lethal dose a person can be exposed to and what is it called?
What are the least and most radiosensitive cells in hemopoietic?
- Most-Leukocytes (lymphocytes)
- Least-Erythrocytes and platelets
What is the least and most radiosensitive cells in gastrointestinal syndrome (GIS)?
- Least esophagus
What are the symptoms of the manifest stage of hemopoietic?
What are the symptoms of the manifest stage of Gastrointestinal Syndrome?
- Decreased Appetite
- Decreased Electrolyte Balance
What are the symptoms of of Cerebrovascular Syndrome?
- Everything as the others+
What is the most likely immediate response symptoms to a radiation dose @ 200 RADS?
- Hematologic Syndrome
What are the potential effects of a patient who survives ARS?
- Late Effects
- Genetic Mutation
What is radiation induced chromosome abberation and what dose relationship do they have?
Nonthreshold dose response
What is single hit abberation?
- Results when one side of a chromotid is severed
- Severe damage to DNA
- When more is broken the more genetic code is damaged
- Damaged chromotid attaches to new chromotid and the pairs split due to mitosis=1 normal and one damaged causing mutation.
- LINEAR NONTHRESHOLD
What is mulit-hit abberation?
- Results when both ends of a chromotid is severed the ends may rejoin and form a ring which results in a new cell death(it can't replicate b/c it can't determine genetic code)
- It can also join with a new or broken chromotid and created new mutated cell-multiple results
- NON LINEAR NONTHRESHOLD
What is the dose relationship of skin effects?
- Threshold Response
- NON LINEAR THRESHOLD RESPONSE
- It takes a minimum dose to have a response
What is the purpose of the (4) blood cells?
- Lymphocytes-Most radiosensitive-involved in immune response
- Granulocytes- Fights Bacteria
- Thrombocytes-Blood clotting, prevents hemorrhaging
- Erythrocytes-Transport agent for oxygen (RBC) and CO2 -Least radiosensitive and most numerous
- Neutrophils-Most abundant
- Cytophils-Attack bacteria and prevent infection
If a patient receives a dose that causes ARS what happens first?