Micro lec 1

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Author:
wvuong
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62134
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Micro lec 1
Updated:
2011-01-26 04:38:28
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exam 1
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  1. What is pH?
    negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration of [H+]
  2. Whats is considered neutral, acidic, and basic?
    • lower than 7 = acidic
    • at 7 - neutral
    • higher than 7 = basic
  3. When its acid, is the [H+] increase or decrease? basic?
    • acidic, [H+] increases
    • basic, [H+] decreases
  4. What's the pH level of ocean, pure rainwater, and soda?
    • ocean - 8
    • pure rainwater - 5.5
    • soda - 2
  5. What organisms loves acidic? what's the pH range?
    Acidophiles, pH 0 - 5.5
  6. What organisms loves basic/alkaline? pH level?
    alkalophile, pH 8.5 and higher
  7. What organisms prefers a pH of neutral? Range?
    Neutrophiles, pH 5.5 - 8.5
  8. What can change the pH level?
    production of waste
  9. what organisms prefers salt, aka salt lovers?
    Halophile (up to 27% salt)
  10. What organisms can stand the pressure?
    Barotolerant organisms, Barophile - require/ love high pressure
  11. What organisms can be found in radioactive waste, can survive UV radiation?
    Deinococcus radiodurans
  12. Sterilization is?
    the destruction or removal of all viable organisms
  13. Disinfection is the..
    killing, inhibition, or removal of pathogenic organisms
  14. this chemical is often used on inanimate objects
    disinfectant
  15. Sanitization is
    the reduction of microbial population to a level that's deemed safe; level set by public health standards
  16. Antisepsis is...
    the prevention of infections of living tissue by microorganisms
  17. Antiseptics are...
    chemical agents that kill/inhibit growth of microbes when applied to tissue
  18. What controlling factors can manage microbes?
    physical, chemical, antibiotics;
  19. heat is...
    • a moist heat autoclaves that can kill endospores
    • -uses high pressure steam, which is a sterilization method
  20. Pasteuriation -
    • below boiling, control killing, using moist heat
    • -effective against all types of microbes
  21. flash pasteurization -
    72 degrees C, 15 seconds
  22. Dry heat is...
    not as effective, higher temperature/longer exposure
  23. cold temperature:
    • -freezing,
    • -stopping microbial reproduction
    • -ice crystals disrupts membranes
    • -refrigeration
    • -slow reproduction
  24. filtration...
    • is a physical barrier - poroous membrane with defined pore size - 0.45 mm or 0.20mm (sterilize)
    • -reduces microbial population or sterilize solutions of heat sensitive materials
    • -filter air HEPA
  25. Radiation...
    uses UV radiation that works only on surfaces
  26. ionizing radiation is for..
    penetration
  27. Drying/desiccation -
    removing water
  28. freeze-dry -
    lyophilization
  29. salting...
    is the removal of water
  30. chemical methods helps..
    lower microbial populations
  31. Penicillin -
    • discovered by Alexander Fleming, 1928
    • -comes from mold, kills gram (+) organisms well
  32. broad spectrum drugs, and an example of one
    • these drugs attacks many different pathogens
    • example: Azithomycin
  33. Narrow spectrum drugs, and examples
    • drugs that attacks only a few different pathogens
    • example: Penicillin, Vancomycin (which is used as last resort)
  34. Disk diffusion test is? discovered?
    • by Kirby-Bauer Method
    • -is a standardized method for disk diffusion test

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