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What is pH?
negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration of [H+]
Whats is considered neutral, acidic, and basic?
- lower than 7 = acidic
- at 7 - neutral
- higher than 7 = basic
When its acid, is the [H+] increase or decrease? basic?
- acidic, [H+] increases
- basic, [H+] decreases
What's the pH level of ocean, pure rainwater, and soda?
- ocean - 8
- pure rainwater - 5.5
- soda - 2
What organisms loves acidic? what's the pH range?
Acidophiles, pH 0 - 5.5
What organisms loves basic/alkaline? pH level?
alkalophile, pH 8.5 and higher
What organisms prefers a pH of neutral? Range?
Neutrophiles, pH 5.5 - 8.5
What can change the pH level?
production of waste
what organisms prefers salt, aka salt lovers?
Halophile (up to 27% salt)
What organisms can stand the pressure?
Barotolerant organisms, Barophile - require/ love high pressure
What organisms can be found in radioactive waste, can survive UV radiation?
the destruction or removal of all viable organisms
Disinfection is the..
killing, inhibition, or removal of pathogenic organisms
this chemical is often used on inanimate objects
the reduction of microbial population to a level that's deemed safe; level set by public health standards
the prevention of infections of living tissue by microorganisms
chemical agents that kill/inhibit growth of microbes when applied to tissue
What controlling factors can manage microbes?
physical, chemical, antibiotics;
- a moist heat autoclaves that can kill endospores
- -uses high pressure steam, which is a sterilization method
- below boiling, control killing, using moist heat
- -effective against all types of microbes
flash pasteurization -
72 degrees C, 15 seconds
Dry heat is...
not as effective, higher temperature/longer exposure
- -stopping microbial reproduction
- -ice crystals disrupts membranes
- -slow reproduction
- is a physical barrier - poroous membrane with defined pore size - 0.45 mm or 0.20mm (sterilize)
- -reduces microbial population or sterilize solutions of heat sensitive materials
- -filter air HEPA
uses UV radiation that works only on surfaces
ionizing radiation is for..
is the removal of water
chemical methods helps..
lower microbial populations
- discovered by Alexander Fleming, 1928
- -comes from mold, kills gram (+) organisms well
broad spectrum drugs, and an example of one
- these drugs attacks many different pathogens
- example: Azithomycin
Narrow spectrum drugs, and examples
- drugs that attacks only a few different pathogens
- example: Penicillin, Vancomycin (which is used as last resort)
Disk diffusion test is? discovered?
- by Kirby-Bauer Method
- -is a standardized method for disk diffusion test