Neuro Ch 1

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Neuro Ch 1
2010-02-06 20:05:23
Neuro ch 1

ch1 neuro
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  1. Clinical Neuroscience
    Scientific study of disorders and disease of the nervous system

    Combination of neurology, psychiatry, neuroscience
  2. Neurology
    Medical speciality encompassing diseases, conditions, and infections of the NS (brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves)
  3. Psychiatry
    medical specialty that includes the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental illness and includes addition and substance use disorders
  4. Neuroscience
    Scientific study of the brain and nervous sytem, including:

    • molecular neuroscience
    • cellular neuroscience
    • cognitive neuroscience
    • psychophysics
    • computational modeling
  5. Early ideas in neuroscience
    ~300 BC--the brain is the major controlling center in the body, earlier ideas focused on the heart as the organ for perception~100 BC--Galen examined brains by vivisections (surgery on live animals).

    Introduced idea of spirits circulating between the liver, heart and brain

    Proposed that animal spirits produced in the lining of the ventricles of the brain flowed into nerves to produce movement and that the seat of the rational soul was the brain
  6. Andreus Vesalius 16th century
    • - Founded modern anatomy by dissecting humans
    • - found that critical aspects of Galen's anatomy were incorrect
  7. Rene Descartes 16th century
    Proposed that spirits flowed to and fro from the pineal gland via nerves

    Recognized existences of reflexes but didn't use this term
  8. Thomas Willis 17th century
    Gained knowledge of the brain from very careful dissections

    Concluded that the cerebral cortex was the site of higher functions, ad actions and sensations mediated via nerves

    Distinction between immortal soul (only humans) and material or coporal soul (shared by all animals).

    Animals had rudimentary perception, cognition, and memory

    Introduced the term neurology, and coined the term reflexion for describing rapid automatic reactions later termed reflexes
  9. Christopher Wren

    Drew detailed picture of the brain
  10. Galvani (18th century)
    Found indirect evidence for intrinsic electrical activity in the nervous system
  11. Gall (18th)
    Phrenology--observing the shape of the skull to determine functions of brain underneath

    Opened door to more rigourous localization studies
  12. Broca (19th)
    Correlated pathology with behaviour

    "Tan" patient with left frontal lobe damage, presented evidence for functional asymmetry of the brain
  13. Charcot (19th)
    Modern Neurolgoy

    Examined NS in postmortems

    Classified features of many disorders
  14. Cajal (19th)
    - Golgi staining

    - Concept of unidirectional flow of information along nerve cells
  15. Sherrington (19-20th)
    - Behaviour can be explained by neural networks

    - Complex behaviours can be broken down to simpler components

    - Discovered inhibition in the NS

    - Introduced the term synapse
  16. Freud (19th-20th)
    - Motivations and drives can be largely unconscious --supported by experimental support