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2011-01-26 16:16:33
infectious disease

infectious diseases
Show Answers:

  1. What is meningitis?
    • inflammation of the meninges identified by abnormal number of WBC in cerebrospinal fluid
    • (Caused by gram(+) and (-) organisms)
  2. Whats the tx. for meningitis in newborn to 1month old?
    what bugs?
    • ampicillin and aminoglycoside, cefortaxime, or ceftriaxone
    • bugs:gram(-)e.coli, group b strep, or listeria
  3. Whats the tx. for meningitis in 1month to 60 years old ?
    what bugs?
    • cefotaxime or ceftriaxone plus vancomycin
    • bugs:haemophilus, neisseria, or streptoc. pneumoniae
    • (30-60years old does not include haemophilus)
  4. Whats the tx. for meningitis adults >60 years old?
    • cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, or ampicillin
    • and amnioglycoside-vancomycin
    • bugs: streptoc.pneumoniae,e.coli, listeria
  5. What is endocarditis?
    • infection of endocardium, membrane lining the heart chambers and valves
    • most common bugs are streptococcus and staphylococcus
  6. Whats the drug tx. for endocarditis in pt. with penicillin susceptible streptococci?
    • penicillin G alone (4weeks)
    • penicillin G with gentamicin (2 weeks)
    • ceftriaxone alone (4 weeks)
    • vancomycin (if allergic to penc.) (4 weeks)
  7. Whats the drug tx. for endocarditis in pt. with streptococci relatively resistant to penicillin?
    • penicillin G alone (4weeks)
    • penicillin G with gentamicin (2 weeks)vancomycin (if allergic to penc.) (4 weeks)
  8. Whats the drug tx. for endocarditis in pt. with streptococcus without prosthetic material (methicillin sensitive)?
    • nafcillin or oxacillin(3-5days of gentamycin may be added) (4-6weeks)
    • cafazolin(with or without gentamicin) (4-6weeks)
    • vancomycin(if allergic to penc) (4-6weeks)
  9. Whats the drug tx. for endocarditis in pt. with streptococcus without prosthetic material (methicillin resistant)?
    vancomycin (4-6weeks)
  10. What are the causative agents of acute or chronic bronchitis?
    mycoplasma, streptoc.pneumoniae, haemophilus,moraxella and chlamydia.
  11. Whats the tx. of acute bronchitis?
    macrolides (erihromycin, clarihromycin, and azihromycin) for 7-10days
  12. Whats the tx. of chronic bronchitis?
    amoxicillin, augmentin(amoxicillin and clavulanate), bactrim, macrolides, doxycycline, cefuroxime, cefaclor, or cefprozil
  13. Whats the tx. of adult community acquired pneumonia(inflammation of lungs)?
    • oral macrolide(azithromycin, clarithromycin, or erythromycin)
    • or FQ (levofloxation, gatifloxacin, or moxifloxacin)
    • bugs:streptoc.pneumoniae, haemophilus,klebsiella, m.pneumoniae
  14. Whats the tx. of adult community acquired pneumonia for a hospitalized pt.?
    • cefotaxime or ceftriaxone with or without macrolide
    • or FQ alone (levofloxacin, gatifloxacin,moxifloxacin)
  15. Whats the tx. of hospital acquired pneumonia?
    • aminoglycoside(tobramycin, amikacin, gentamicin) PLUS
    • cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, meropenem or imipenem
    • vanco may be added if staph.aureus suspected
    • bugs:klebsiella,enterobacter,serratia,acinetobacter , staph.aureus
  16. Whats the tx. of tuberculosis (mostly caused by mycobacterium TB)?
    • Latent: Isoniazid (9mo.)
    • Latent isoniazid resistant: rifampin and pyrazinamide (2mo.)
    • Active: Isoniazid and rifampin and pyrazinamide (2-4mo)
  17. What are the bugs that cause skin and soft tissue infections?
    • streptococcus and staphylococcus
    • possibly aerobic and anaerobic organisms
  18. What drugs are used to treat cellulitis?
    • usually caused by staphyloc.aureus
    • outpatient: dicloxacillin,cefadroxil,cephalexin,erythromycin
    • in-pt:cefazolin, erythromycin
    • severe case: vancomycin
  19. What is the tx. of diabetic foot infections?
    • clindamycin or cephalexin
    • severe cases:ticarcillin-clavulanic acid or other beta-lactamase inhibitor
    • vanco may be added if MRSA suspected
    • bugs:anaerobic streptoc.,e.coli,s.aurous,b.fragilis
  20. Whats the usual tx. for UTI?
    bactrim or FQ for 3 days(acute infection)
  21. Whats the tx. for pyelonephritis?
    • FQ for 14days or bactrim for 14days
    • (if severe paranteral therapy with FQ and extended-spectrum penicillin plus aminoglycoside should be added)
  22. Whats the tx. for prostatitis?
    • FQ for 4-6wks.
    • or Bactrim for 4-6wks.