review

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Author:
awalczak11
ID:
62191
Filename:
review
Updated:
2011-01-26 16:16:33
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infectious disease
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Description:
infectious diseases
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  1. What is meningitis?
    • inflammation of the meninges identified by abnormal number of WBC in cerebrospinal fluid
    • (Caused by gram(+) and (-) organisms)
  2. Whats the tx. for meningitis in newborn to 1month old?
    what bugs?
    • ampicillin and aminoglycoside, cefortaxime, or ceftriaxone
    • bugs:gram(-)e.coli, group b strep, or listeria
  3. Whats the tx. for meningitis in 1month to 60 years old ?
    what bugs?
    • cefotaxime or ceftriaxone plus vancomycin
    • bugs:haemophilus, neisseria, or streptoc. pneumoniae
    • (30-60years old does not include haemophilus)
  4. Whats the tx. for meningitis adults >60 years old?
    bugs?
    • cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, or ampicillin
    • and amnioglycoside-vancomycin
    • bugs: streptoc.pneumoniae,e.coli, listeria
  5. What is endocarditis?
    • infection of endocardium, membrane lining the heart chambers and valves
    • most common bugs are streptococcus and staphylococcus
  6. Whats the drug tx. for endocarditis in pt. with penicillin susceptible streptococci?
    • penicillin G alone (4weeks)
    • penicillin G with gentamicin (2 weeks)
    • ceftriaxone alone (4 weeks)
    • vancomycin (if allergic to penc.) (4 weeks)
  7. Whats the drug tx. for endocarditis in pt. with streptococci relatively resistant to penicillin?
    • penicillin G alone (4weeks)
    • penicillin G with gentamicin (2 weeks)vancomycin (if allergic to penc.) (4 weeks)
  8. Whats the drug tx. for endocarditis in pt. with streptococcus without prosthetic material (methicillin sensitive)?
    • nafcillin or oxacillin(3-5days of gentamycin may be added) (4-6weeks)
    • cafazolin(with or without gentamicin) (4-6weeks)
    • vancomycin(if allergic to penc) (4-6weeks)
  9. Whats the drug tx. for endocarditis in pt. with streptococcus without prosthetic material (methicillin resistant)?
    vancomycin (4-6weeks)
  10. What are the causative agents of acute or chronic bronchitis?
    mycoplasma, streptoc.pneumoniae, haemophilus,moraxella and chlamydia.
  11. Whats the tx. of acute bronchitis?
    macrolides (erihromycin, clarihromycin, and azihromycin) for 7-10days
  12. Whats the tx. of chronic bronchitis?
    amoxicillin, augmentin(amoxicillin and clavulanate), bactrim, macrolides, doxycycline, cefuroxime, cefaclor, or cefprozil
  13. Whats the tx. of adult community acquired pneumonia(inflammation of lungs)?
    bugs?
    • oral macrolide(azithromycin, clarithromycin, or erythromycin)
    • or FQ (levofloxation, gatifloxacin, or moxifloxacin)
    • bugs:streptoc.pneumoniae, haemophilus,klebsiella, m.pneumoniae
  14. Whats the tx. of adult community acquired pneumonia for a hospitalized pt.?
    • cefotaxime or ceftriaxone with or without macrolide
    • or FQ alone (levofloxacin, gatifloxacin,moxifloxacin)
  15. Whats the tx. of hospital acquired pneumonia?
    bugs?
    • aminoglycoside(tobramycin, amikacin, gentamicin) PLUS
    • cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, meropenem or imipenem
    • vanco may be added if staph.aureus suspected
    • bugs:klebsiella,enterobacter,serratia,acinetobacter , staph.aureus
  16. Whats the tx. of tuberculosis (mostly caused by mycobacterium TB)?
    • Latent: Isoniazid (9mo.)
    • Latent isoniazid resistant: rifampin and pyrazinamide (2mo.)
    • Active: Isoniazid and rifampin and pyrazinamide (2-4mo)
  17. What are the bugs that cause skin and soft tissue infections?
    • streptococcus and staphylococcus
    • possibly aerobic and anaerobic organisms
  18. What drugs are used to treat cellulitis?
    • usually caused by staphyloc.aureus
    • outpatient: dicloxacillin,cefadroxil,cephalexin,erythromycin
    • in-pt:cefazolin, erythromycin
    • severe case: vancomycin
  19. What is the tx. of diabetic foot infections?
    • clindamycin or cephalexin
    • severe cases:ticarcillin-clavulanic acid or other beta-lactamase inhibitor
    • vanco may be added if MRSA suspected
    • bugs:anaerobic streptoc.,e.coli,s.aurous,b.fragilis
  20. Whats the usual tx. for UTI?
    bactrim or FQ for 3 days(acute infection)
  21. Whats the tx. for pyelonephritis?
    • FQ for 14days or bactrim for 14days
    • (if severe paranteral therapy with FQ and extended-spectrum penicillin plus aminoglycoside should be added)
  22. Whats the tx. for prostatitis?
    • FQ for 4-6wks.
    • or Bactrim for 4-6wks.

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