What contribution to the cell theory did Robert Hooke make?
He was observing dead cork & discovered cells.
What contribution to the cell theory did Matthias Schleiden make?
He concluded that all plants were made of cells.
What contribution to the cell theory did Theodor Schwann make?
He concluded that all animals were made of cells.
What contribution to the cell theory did Rudolf Virchow make?
He concluded that new cells could be produced only from the division of existing cells.
What is one fundamental concept of biology discussed in Chapter 7?
The Cell Theory.
What are the 3 parts of the Cell Theory?
- All living things are composed of cells.
- Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.
- New cells are produced from existing cells.
What 2 characteristics do all cells have in common?
They all have a cell membrance & DNA.
What is a large membrance-enclosed structure that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA?
What are cells that contain nuclei?
Eukaryotes (Think Eu=YOU!)
What are cells that lack nuclei?
Do prokaryotic cells have DNA?
Yes, they have genetic material that isn't contained in a nucleus.
True or False: Prokaryotes grow, reproduce, and respond to the environment.
True or False: Eukaryotic cells aren't generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic cells contain a __________ in which their genetic material is separated from the rest of the cell.
What does the book refer to the cell as?
What are the small structures that act as if they are specialized organs in the cell?
What is the portion of the cell outside the nucleus?
The ___________ contains nearly all the cell's DNA and with it the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules.
What surrounds the nucleus?
The Nuclear Envelope.
Is the nuclear envelope porous? Why or why not?
Yes, it's porous so it can allow material to move into and out of the nucleus.
The granular material that you can see in the nucleus that consists of DNA bound to protein that condense to form chromosomes are called __________.
What are distinct, threadlike structures that contain the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next?
Most nuclei also contain a small, dense region known as the _________, which is where the assembly of ribosomes begins.
Where are proteins assembled?
What are small particles of RNA & protein that are found throughout the cytoplasm?
What do ribosomes do?
They produce proteins by following coded instructions that come from the nucleus.
What occurs in the endoplasmit reticulum?
It is the site where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled along with proteins and other matrials that are exported from the cell.
The portion of the ER involved in the synthesis of proteins is called _______ ER.
What is found on the surface of rough ER?
What kind of ER has no ribosomes attached to it?
What appears as a stack of closely apposed membranes?
The Golgi apparatus
What is the function of the Golgi apparatus?
The function of the Golgi apparatus is to modify, sort, and package proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell.
What are small organelles filled with enzymes?
What perform the vital function of removing "junk" that might otherwise accumulate and clutter up the cell?
What are saclike structures used for storage?
The paramecium contans a vacuole called a contractile vacuole. By contracting rhythmically, what happens?
This specialized vacuole pumps excess water out of the cell.
What is the maintenance of a controlled internal environment?
______________ are organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more conenient for the cell to use.
How many membranes surround the mitochondrion?
From which parent do mitochondrions come from?
__________ are only found in plant cells & are organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy through a process called photosynthesis.
Are the chloroplasts surrounded by membranes? If so, how many?
Yes & 2.
What two structures contain their own DNA?
Chloroplasts & Mitochondria
What do eukaryotic cells have that help support the cell?
What is a network of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape & is also involved in movement?
What are threadlike structures made of a protein called actin that form extensive networks in some cells and produce a tough, flexible framework that supports the cell?
What are hollow structures made up of proteins known as tublins and play critical roles in maintaining cell shape and also are important in cell division?
What are located near the nucleus and help to organize cell division & are not found in plant cells?
All cells are surrounded by a thin, flexible barrier known as the _______ ___________.
Plant cells also produce a strong supporting layer around the membrane known as the _____ ______.
What does the cell membrane do?
It regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protection and support.
What makes up most cell membranes?
a lipid bilayer
What is the main function of the cell wall?
The main function is to provide support and protection for the cell.
Plant cell walls are mostly made of _________.
The _________ of a solution is the mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume.
What is diffusion?
It is a process in whcih particles tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated.
When the concentration of the solute is the same throughout a system, they system has reached __________.
Does diffusion require energy?
Even when equilibrium is reached, particles of a solution will continue to move across the membrane in both directions.
What does a selectively permeable membrane mean?
It means the membrane will let some molecules into the cell, but others cannot get in.
What is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrance?
If a solution is isotonic, what does that mean?
It means "same strength." The amount of solute is the same as the amount of solvent.
If a solution is hypertonic, what does that mean?
It means "above strength." The amount of solute is higher than the amount of solvent.
If a solution is hypotonic, what does that mean?
It means "below strength." The amount of solute is lower than the amount of solute.
What do plant cells and bacteria have to protect them from harsh osmotic pressure?
They have cell walls.
What is facilitated diffusion?
During facilitated diffusion, molecules that cannot diffuse across the cell membrane's lipid bilayer on their own move through protein channels instead.
What is active transport?
Active transport occurs when cells must move materials in the opposite direction, against concentraion difference. It requires energy. Molecules are carried across a cell membrance by a transport protein or pumps that are found in the membrance itsself.
What is endocytosis?
Endocytosis is the process of taking material into the cell by means of infoldings, or pockets, of the cell membrane.
What does endocytosis form in the cytoplasm?
What is phagocytosis?
It is a form of endocytosis in which extensions of cytoplasm surround a particle and package it within a food vacuole.
What is pinocytosis?
It is a form of endocytosis in which tiny pockets form alone the cell membrance, fill with liquid, and pinch off to form vacuoles within the cell.
What is exocytosis?
It is a process in which the membrance of the vacuole surrounding the material fuses with the cell membrane, forcing the contents out of the cell.
What are unicellular organisms?
They are one-celled organisms that can do everything that you would expect a living thing to do. They grow, respond to the environment, transform energy, and reproduce.
What are multicellular organisms?
They are organisms that are made of many cells. There is a lot of variety with multicellular organisms. They all depend on communication and cooperation among specialized cells. Cells throughout an organism can develop in different ways to perform different tasks.
What is cell specialization?
It is when cells throught an organism can develop in different ways to perform different tasks.
What are the levels of organization in a multicellular organism?
What is a tissue?
It is a unit of similar cells.
What is made when many groups of tissues work together?
What is an organ system?
a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
List the levels of organization in multicellular organisms in order from smallest to greatest.