bio 242 test 1

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taylorbialkowski
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62231
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bio 242 test 1
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2011-01-26 18:51:09
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bio 242 test 1
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  1. brain and spinal cord
    control, runs the whole body
    integrative and control centers
    electrical/chemical communication
    very fast and specific
    input > decision making > response
    central nervous system (CNS)
  2. sensory=________
    -bringing info into CNS, internal or external
    input
  3. attaches to brain and every other part of body
    spinal cord
  4. information from internal muscular area
    zomatosensory
  5. communication between body and CNS
    cranial nerves (from brain) and spinal nerves (exit intervertebral foramina)
    Peripheral Nervous System
  6. afferent, anything coming into CNS, signals go up, visceral
    sensory
  7. efferent, anything going away from CNS, signals go down, somatic
    motor
  8. if you break a bone, _________ sensory tells brain "ouch"
    musculoskeletal system (muscles, bones, tendons, ligaments)
    somatic
  9. organs: hunger, thirst, full bladder, etc
    visceral
  10. conducts impulses from CNS to effectors (muscles and glands)
    motor
  11. -involuntary, ex: cannot change your heart rate
    -visceral motor
    -conducts impulses from CNS to cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, and glands

    which system?
    Autonomic system
  12. speeds body up except digestion, fight or flight, survival
    -cold remedies mimic sympathetic actions but do not cure

    sypmathetic/parasympathetic
    sympathetic
  13. slows us down, conserves energy, restful state to be in

    sypmathetic/parasympathetic
    parasympathetic
  14. excitable cells, very high maintenance > cannot reproduce if damaged, once it's gone it's gone forever/require constant oxygen and glucose- if cut off for just a few minutes they will die
    neurons
  15. incoming area of neurons (receptive)
    dendrites
  16. only one exit of neuron
    axon
  17. support cells for neurons (6 types), support protect and nourish neurons
    neurological cells
  18. made of cholesterol, surrounds axon, makes impulses move very fast
    myelin sheath
  19. leaps from node to node, very fast and efficent
    saltatory conduction
  20. myelin sheath is deteriorating, impulse is slower if you get hurt
    multiple sclerosis
  21. extra neurons in between sensory and motor neurons
    interneurons
  22. gates in our system that we can open or close depending in circumstances we are in, always go from area of higher concentration to lower concentration
    gated channels
  23. chemical gate, opens and closes depending on chemicals
    ligand
  24. gate that opens and closes in response to electricity
    voltage
  25. gate that opens and closes in response to touch and pressure
    mechanical
  26. gate that always stays open
    open
  27. inside is more negative than positive outside, difference of -70 millivolts
    resting potential
  28. most important ion in nerve conduction
    K+ potassium
  29. reduction in membrane potential, inside of membrane becomes less negative than resting potential, ex: change from -70 mV to -65 mV
    depolarization
  30. membrane potential increases, becoming more negative than the resting potential, ex: change from -70 mV to -75 mV
    hyperpolarization
  31. space between neurons
    synapse
  32. secreted by end of axon, next neuron to it will respond, binding opens ion channels resulting in graded potentials
    neurotransmitters
  33. if it is _________, it will cause depolarization
    excitatory
  34. if it is _________, it results in hyperpolarization
    inhibitory
  35. we have the most complex cerebral cortex
    cephalization
  36. specialization of certain functions
    lateralization
  37. skilled, voluntary, conscious movement


    which motor area?
    primary motor cortex
  38. control of learned movement, ex: pen and paper > learn how to write


    which motor area?
    premotor cortex
  39. motor for speech


    which motor area?
    Broca's area
  40. motor to the eyes, muscles for eye movement


    which motor area?
    frontal eye field
  41. sensations from musculoskeletal system, ex: close eyes and you still know where your elbow is


    which sensory area?
    primary somatosensory cortex
  42. you are aware of what you're doing, can be measured, most concentration in hands and feet
    proprioception
  43. interpretation, to understand what certain input means, ex: if you touch a sponge with your eyes closed, you still know its a sponge


    which sensory area?
    somatosensory association cortex
  44. surrounds primary visual cortex, covers most of occipital lobe, uses past visual experiences to interpret visual stimuli


    which sensory area?
    visual association area
  45. what does a sound mean, perception of what a word means, ex: sirens=bad


    which sensory area?
    auditory association area
  46. smell cortex > memory > very powerful with memories


    which sensory area?
    olfactory
  47. perception of taste stimuli


    which sensory area?
    gustatory cortex
  48. conscious perception of sensations in the organs, ex: upset stomach, full bladder, and feeling that lungs will burst if you hold your breath too long


    which sensory area?
    visceral sensory area
  49. conscious awareness of balance


    which sensory area?
    vestibular cortex
  50. memory and meaning to all our input


    which association area?
    multi-modal
  51. most complex learning occurring, prefrontal cortex, personaltiy


    which association area?
    anterior association area
  52. takes all input around you and makes sense of it


    which association area?
    interior association area
  53. emotions and memories


    which association area?
    limbic association area
  54. cerebral white matter in brain
    communication within brain
  55. motor function, controls starting and stopping of movement
    basal nuclei
  56. diencephalon
    thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
  57. gateway to cerebral cortex, sorts and edits all input, ex: auditory goes to hearing, etc
    *part of diencephalon
    thalamus
  58. visceral control center (organs): temperature, hunger, thirst; basic functioning that we do not have to think about
    *part of diencephalon
    hypothalamus
  59. sleep/wake cycle, biological clock
    *part of diencephalon
    epithalamus
  60. survival in terms of fight or flight
    produces dopamine
    involved in pain suppression
    *part of brain stem
    midbrain
  61. relay area, lets cerebellum and motor cortex know what is going on (muscle control)
    *part of brain stem
    pons
  62. reflex center > cannot hold breath and kill yourself, ________ _______ will make you breathe
    medulla oblongata
  63. crossing over of nerve tracts (left brain controls right side of body, vice versa)
    decussation
  64. most sensitive to alcohol > close eyes/touch nose, not something you can control, involuntary
    cerebellum
  65. no specific anatomical position
    brain arousal, alertness
    only time not working, when in a coma
    alcohol can suppress/damage
    filters sensory input
    reticular formation
  66. interpreted in left hemisphere


    language/body language
    language
  67. interpreted in right hemisphere


    language/body language
    body language
  68. skull
    meninges
    CSF
    blood brain barrier: tubes that lead blood into brain and protect it from toxic substances
    *still very delicate even with all of these protecting it
    protection of brain
  69. if neurons don't get enough oxygen/glucose (blockage or weakness of blood vessels), usually have warning signs called TIA (transient ischemic attack)
    -brain injury
    cerebrovascular accident
  70. Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease
    -has to do with starting/stopping of basal nuclei
    _brain injury
    degenerative diseases
  71. cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, and coccyx
    spinal cord
  72. holes in middle of bones of spine, nerves exit through here
    intervertebral foramina
  73. lots of nerves bunched together
    plexus
  74. nerve from cervical plexus, has to do with breathing > hiccups
    phrenic
  75. caused by lack of oxygen
    cerebral palsy
  76. sensory receptors and sensation
    peripheral nervous system
  77. any change in environment (external or internal)
    stimuli
  78. receptor for touch (stretch, pressure, vibration)
    mechanoreceptor
  79. receptor for temperature
    thermal
  80. receptor for vision
    photo receptors
  81. receptor for chemicals, ex: oxygen levels
    chemoreceptor
  82. pain, when stimulated > damage to whatever tissue is hurting
    nociceptors
  83. where you are in space
    1. receptor level
    2. circuit level (ascending/afferent)- located @spinal cord
    3. perceptual level- located @top of brain
    proprioceptors
  84. whatever the input is; hot, cold, etc
    sensation
  85. how we perceive the input to be, interpretation of pain
    perception
  86. cannot smell through ears
    receptor level
  87. wraps individual axon
    endoneurium
  88. a bunch of individually wrapped axons
    fassicles
  89. wraps fassicle
    perineuriem
  90. wraps around all fassicles
    epineurium
  91. front of nerves, motor
    ventral
  92. back of nerves, sensory
    dorsal
  93. tell us where problem is in spine from skin innervation if we track them
    dermatomes
  94. located in cerebellum and basal nuclei, regulate motor activity > programs and instructions, modified by feedback
    pre-command level (highest)
  95. spinal cord under direct control of ___________ level, convey information to lower motor neurons
    projection
  96. lowest level of motor hierarchy, consists of spinal cord circuits
    segmental level
  97. components of a reflex arc
    • 1. receptor: site of stimulus action
    • 2. sensory neuron: transmits afferent impulses to CNS
    • 3. Integration center
    • 4. motor neuron: conducts impulses from integration center to an effector organ
    • 5. effector: muscle fiber or gland cell that responds to efferent impulses
  98. born with these reflexes, automatic
    do not have to tell digestion system to digest
    Intrinsic reflexes
  99. do not involve brain, just spinal cord


    _______ reflexes
    spinal
  100. keep muscles at correct muscle lengths


    _______ reflex
    stretch
  101. automatic, prevents over stretching/damage to tissue

    _______ reflex
    golgi tendon
  102. protection

    _______ reflex
    flexor (withdrawal)
  103. balance

    _______ reflex
    cross-extensor
  104. 1. plantar reflex
    2. babinski
    3. umbilical
    -skin/cutaneous
    superficial reflexes
  105. biggest difference between ANS and somatic system= _______ of nerve transmission (no myelin in ANS)
    speed
  106. skeletal muscle, can only be stimulated
    -effector organs
    somatic
  107. smooth/cardiac muscles, glands, can be stimulated or inhibited
    autonomic nervous system
  108. support and protect neurons
    neuroglial cells
  109. ________ nerve is part of the lumbosacral plexus
    femoral
  110. ________ nerve is part of the brachial plexus
    sciatic
  111. ________ nerve is part of the cervical plexus
    phrenic
  112. craniosacral
    originate in brain and sacrum
    -D's: digestion, defecation, diaeresis

    sym/parasym
    parasympathetic
  113. thoracolumbar
    originates in spinal cord
    -E's: excitement, embarrassment

    parasym/sym
    sympathetic
  114. boss, overall integration, you can simply think of something and feel emotion for it
    hypothalamus
  115. ANS can dilate or constrict blood vessels
    • vasomotor tone
    • (vaso: blood vessel)
  116. when blood vessels are too constrictred
    high blood pressure, hypertension
  117. caused by too much vasoconstruction
    Raynaud's disease, aka: patriotic disease

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