Microbiology test 1

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Microbiology test 1
2011-02-21 23:38:32
bacteria spontainious mutation microscepes

Chariteristics of Bacteria
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  1. Procaryotic Bacteria
    Lack membrane bound organalles
  2. Eucaryotic bacteria
    Have membrane bound organaelles
  3. membrane bound organaelles
    eucaryotic bacteria
  4. Bacteria that lack membrane bound organalles
  5. Bacteria and blue-green algae are
  6. What are organaelles
    little organs
  7. Name five characteristics of Bacteria
    Procaryotic or Eucaryotic, Reproduction, Metabolism, Iritability, Mutation.
  8. What is metabolism
    conversion of food into energy, cell wall, enzymes.
  9. What is Mutation
    An abserable change in DNA, has to be measurable, from the mother cell, one generation to another.
  10. Give one example of mutation
  11. What is Irritability
    The ability to respond to a stimulus
  12. What are four type of asexual reproduction
    Fission, Budding, Fragmentation, and Sporulation
  13. One example of fission
  14. One example of budding
  15. One example of Fragmentation
  16. One example of Sporulation
    molds and fungi
  17. What is the credical number
    The number of spors that a fungus can hold before it bust
  18. Pseudo sexual
    False sexual reproduction
  19. One type of bacteria Pseudo sexual reproduction
  20. Conjugation
    is the transfer of a portion of DNA from one pili to another without produceing offspring
  21. Spontanious mutation happens
    within the cell
  22. induced mutation happens
    outside the cell
  23. What can caues mutations
    UV light, chemicals, chronicly irritated cells, and viruses
  24. Transformation is
    The Free exchange of DNA to cause a mutation
  25. Transduction is
    The exchange of DNA using a viruse to cause a mutation
  26. What are the 4 phases of the growth curve of a bacterial cell
    Latent phase, Log phase, Stationary phase, and Decline phase
  27. Latent phase is
    Small amount of growth
  28. Log phase is
    Exponential growth of bacterial cell, growing by powers of 10.
  29. A bacteria that is growing quickly is in a phase called
    The Log phase
  30. The Stationary phase is
    When the number of births equal the number of deaths in a bacerial cell.
  31. What cause bacterial cells to go down in the growth curve.
    Lack of nutrients, waist, PH changes, and changes in temp.
  32. What is the Decline Phase
    The decrease of bacterial cells.
  33. Why do we use microbes in research
    1. They have shout generation time (GT), 2. Take up little space, 3.Take little nurient (inexpensive).
  34. What is the generation time for humans
    20 years
  35. Robert Koch
    invented the 1st anthrax vaccine.
  36. Anthrax is caused by
    Bacillius Anthracis
  37. Joseph Lister
    Developed the 1st pure culture technic
  38. Louie Pasture
    Father of modern day micro bi. Developed the first Rabbies vaccine.
  39. Rabbies is caused by
    The Rabdo Virus
  40. Illi Metchnikoff
    Russian sientist, First to observe pagocytosis.
  41. Enders, Robbins and Weller
    Developed the 1st live tissue culture
  42. Jonas Salk
    Developed the 1st Polio vaccine, it had to be injected.
  43. Lewis Sabin
    Developed the 1st oral Polio vaccine.
  44. Polio is caused by
    The picona virus
  45. List 10 ways to ID bacterial cells
    • 1. Cultural characteristic
    • 2. Cell Morphology
    • 3. Stains
    • 4. Biochemical Reactions
    • 5. Serology
    • 6. Genetic Meterial
    • 7. Gaseus Requirements
    • 8. Spore Producer
    • 9. Capsule
    • 10.Flagella
  46. ID bacterial cells by Cultural characteristic include
    • Raised vs Flat
    • Mucoid vs Dry
    • Pigment vs Non pigment
    • Motile vs Non motile
    • Opaque vs Transparent
  47. ID bacterial cells by Cell Morphaology (study of shapes)
    Rods, Cocci, Diplococcus, Staphlococcus, Streptococcus, Spirillum.
  48. Rods are
  49. Cocci
  50. Diplococcus
    Two cell stuck together
  51. Staphlococcus
    Cluster of cell
  52. Streptococcus
    several cells in a line
  53. Spirillum
    cork screw shaped
  54. Treponem pallidum causes
  55. Staining
    We can ID a bacterial cell on the basis of their stain
  56. What is the primary stain for the gram stain
    crystal viloet
  57. What is the counter stain for the gram stain
  58. What is the mordent for gram stain
    Gram's iodine
  59. What is the decolorizer for gram staining
    95% ethanol alcohol
  60. What color is gram positve stain
  61. What color is gram negitive stain
  62. ID bacterial cells by Biochemical Reactions are
    Chemical reactions accuring in a living cell
  63. ID bacterial cells by Serology
    The use of anti-sera to ID a bacterium
  64. ID bacterial cells by Genetic meterial
    Nitrogenous Bases / DNA molecule
    • A-Adenine
    • T-Thymine
    • C-Cytosice (Cytosine)
    • G-Guanine
  65. ID bacterial cells by Gaseus Requirements
    • 1. Aerobic-lives with water
    • 2. Anaerobic- lives without water
    • 3. Facultative- lives with or without water
  66. Aerobic bacterial cells live
    with water
  67. Anaerobic bacterial cells live
    Without water
  68. Facultative baterial cells live
    With or without water
  69. ID bacterial cells by Spore producer
    The presents of a spore
  70. Endospore
    The spore is somewhere within the rod
  71. Terminal Spore
    The spore is on one end of the rod or the other
  72. What is the spore for in bacteria
  73. What are the 4 Flagella Arrangements
    • 1. Monotrichous
    • 2. Peritrichous
    • 3. Lophotrichous
    • 4. Bipolar
  74. ID bacterial cells by the presents of a capsule
    Can be Protein or Polysaccharide
  75. ID bacterial cells by their Flagella
    • Monotrichous - one hair of the rod
    • Peritrichous - surrounding the rod
    • Lophotrichous - many at one end of the rod
    • Bipolar - Several at each end of the rod
  76. Mycobacterium Leprae causes what desease
  77. What makes the best antigens
  78. What type of microscopes is use when the organism is lite up, you don't have to stain it
    Dark field light microscopes
  79. The only acid fast staining genus on the planet
  80. What is the nitrogenous base that bonds with thymine in the DNA molecule
  81. What type of light microscope uses a 3 ring system that gives a 3-D image
    Phase contrast
  82. What type of flagella arrangement where you have a multipicity at one end of a rod
  83. What is the name of the nitrogenous base that bonds with Cytosine in the DNA molecule
  84. What is the name of the structure that is highly suseptable to temp changes, PH change, chemical, that grow along the rod
  85. What type of microscope is used where the image is dark, dye is used, and oil is needed.
    Bright field light microscope
  86. What are the two types of microscopes
    • Electron microscope
    • Light microscope
  87. What is the resolving power of a microscope
    lamda over 2NA
  88. Lamda stands for
    light wavelength
  89. 2NA stands for
    2 numerical apriture
  90. wavelenght measured in angstrums
    • o
    • A
  91. Resolving power is indirectly propotional to what
  92. Electron microscope
    Can magnify 20,000x
  93. Adulteration
    when something (dye) is added to a cell, to change its apperance.
  94. Microscope used to study antigen antibody reactions
    Florescent Light Microscope
  95. Anything that stimulates antibody reactions
  96. Protien produced by lymphoctes in respone to an antigen
  97. Phase Contrast microscope
    3 ring system that gives a 3-D image
  98. What color does staphlacoccus aureuse turn on blood agar
  99. As the resolving power goes up
    magnification goes down
  100. as magnification goes up
    resolving power goes down
  101. As the NA goes up
    RP goes down
  102. As the NA goes down RP goes up
    magnification goes down
  103. As the NA goes up, RP goes down
    magnification goes up
  104. As lamda goes up, RP goes up
    magnification goes down
  105. As lamda goes down, RP goes down
    magnification goes up
  106. Hanging drop slide is used
    to study motility and low light intensity
  107. Name three Simple Stains
    • 1. Negative stain
    • 2. Fat stain
    • 3. Capsule stain
  108. What is used on a negative stain
    Nigrosine dye, oil, do not adulterate
  109. What type of light and dye is used for hanging drop slide
    Low light intensity, no dye
  110. What dye is used for Fat staining
    Sudan black
  111. What type of lense and oil is used in hanging drop slide
    High dry lense (40x), no oil
  112. What factory efect a gram stain
    Washing, culture age, and antibiotics
  113. What stains intracellular organalles
    Fat stains
  114. What dye is used on a capsule stain
    1% crystal violet
  115. What wash is used in a capsule stain
    20% copper sulfate
  116. What is the primary stain us on Acid fast staining
    Carbo fushion (red)
  117. What is the mordent used in Acid fast staining
  118. What is the decolorizer in acid fast staining
    acid alcohol (HCL) 95% ethanal alcohol
  119. What is the counter stain used in Acid fast staining
    Methlene blue
  120. Acid fast stains
  121. Non acid fast stains
  122. In Spore staining, what is the primary stain
    maladite green
  123. In Spore staining, what is the mordant
    steam heat
  124. In Spore staining, what is the decolorizer
    H2O, water
  125. In Spore staining, what is the counter stain
  126. In Spore staining, the rods stained
  127. In Spore staining, spores stained
  128. What is the opt age for a culture
    18 to 21hr
  129. What is the function of mordant
    makes the dye stick to the cell wall
  130. Spheroplast
    any bacterial cell with a parcial cell wall
  131. Protoplast
    any bacterial cell with no cell wall
  132. How do antibiotics effect the outcome of a gram stain
    It digest holes in the cell wall
  133. Always capitalize
    Always underline
    (unless it is in italics)
  134. Never capitalize
    (unless it is named for a famous person)
    Aways underline
    (unless it is in italics)
  135. The scientific name is made up of
    Geneus name + Species name
  136. Three Scientific name
    • Escherichea coli
    • Staphlacoccus aureuse
    • Staphlacoccus epidermis
  137. troy unit
    12 oz to a lb
  138. avor unit
    16 oz to a lb
  139. Name the four types of light microscopes
    • 1. Bright field light microscope
    • 2. Dark field light microscope
    • 3. Florescent light microscope
    • 4. Phase contrast light microscope
  140. Oil has the same reflective index as