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What are the general names for blood vessels and relative pressures?
- Arteries - Deliver blood to the organs from the heart (80mmhg - 120mmhg)
- Veins - Deliver blood to the heart (7 mmhg)
Describe some pathologies which can arise from faulty heart valves.
- Left side output reduced
- Pulmonary Edema
- Right side output reduced
- Peripheral Edema
- Ascites (Abdominal Edema)
What is the maximum diffusion distance between a capillary and a cell?
300 - 500 micrometers
What are the blood vessels which serve the large blood vessels called?
What are the names of the heart valves?
- LO - Aortic Valve
- LI - Mitral Valve (Bicuspid)
- RO - Pulmonary Valve
- Ri - Tricuspid Valve
Give the parts of the Cardiac Cycle
- Distole (60% of time)
- 1) Pv ~ 0, A-c, M-o
- 2) Pv up toward 7mmhg and the flaccid wall begins to stretch until mycardial stretch balances filling pressure.
- Systole (40% of time)
- 3) Contraction begins at the apex with a twist
- + M-c and A-c
- + Isovolemic systole, P up, Vol constant
- 4) A-o, Pv goes up to 120 mmhg, then quickly drops back to zero
What are the ways to increase the cardiac output?
- CO = Stroke Volume * BPM
- 1) Increase BPM
- -Electrical stimuli
- -Chemical stimuli (Norepinephrine - "Adrenalin")
- 2) Increase STV
- -Increase contraction of upstream veins. Preload therefore Pv goes up and stretch in the ventricular walls increases.
- -Decrease the arterial pressure. Afterload drops and residual volume drops.
What are the steps of cardiomyocyte polarization?
- 1) Energy is spent (ATP) to pump Na out of the cell which draws K in and charges the cell to -90mv
- 2) Spontaneously, the membrane switches from an insulator to a conductor and Na rushes in and K out. Voltage rises and overshoots zero.
- 3) The acceleration of the current causes an electrical field and a magnetic field for each cell.
How does the heart fire electrically?
- 1) CMC in the sinoarterial node depolarize at a faster rate and initiate electrical diastole through atrium.
- -This initiates the "atrium kick"
- -Valve rings insulate ventrical
- 2) Depolarization is allowed into the ventricle with a delay through the atrial ventricular node.
- 3) Depolarization is sent to the apex through the Purkinje fibers.
- 4) Electrical systole begins and the heart contracts and twist from the apex upward.