Respiratory System

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Respiratory System
2011-01-26 21:50:58
Anatomy II

Test of 1/27/11
Show Answers:

  1. What are the five functions of the respiratory system?
    • provides oxygen to the blood
    • removes carbon dioxide
    • enables sound production
    • aids in the abdominal compression needed during urination and defecation
  2. What is respiration?
    the combination of four processes
  3. What are the four processes of repiration?
    • pulmonary ventilation
    • external respiration
    • transport of respiratory gases
    • internal respiration
  4. What is Pulmonary Ventilation?
    • movement of air between the lungs and the environment
    • has two divisions
  5. What are the two divisions of Pulmonary Respiration?
    • Inspiration: movement of air into the lungs
    • Expiration: movement of air out of the lungs
  6. What is External Respiration?
    movement of oxygen from the lungs to the blood and movement of co2 from the blood to the lungs
  7. What is transport of Respiratory Gases?
    transport of oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and transport of co2 from the tissues to the lungs
  8. What is Internal Respiration?
    movement of oxygen from the blood to the cells and movement of co2 from the cells to the blood
  9. Know diagram of air flow
  10. What are the principal organs of the respiratory system?
    • Nose
    • Pharynx
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi
    • Alveoli
  11. What is the function of the nose? (5)
    • provides an airway fro respiration
    • moistens the air
    • filters and cleans the air
    • amplifies the sound of speech/passes the sound
    • detects odors in the air
  12. What are the parts of the nose?
    • Vibrassae
    • Nasal Cillia
    • Capillaries
    • Nasal Conchae
    • Oflactory Mucosa
    • Respiratory Mucosa
    • Lymphocytes and IgA
  13. What is the Vibrassae?
    guard hairs in the nose that filter out particles
  14. What is Nasal Cillia?
    small hairs that move particles towards the throat for digestion
  15. What are Capillaries
    • blood vessles that warm the air
    • in the winter they can crack and cause nose bleeds
  16. What are Nasal Conchae?
    • the mucous membranes that line the nose
    • also filter debri
  17. What are the Olfactory Mucosa?
    mucous membranes with cell receptors to bring senses/smells to your brain
  18. What is the respiratory mucosa?
    contain goblet cells that secrete mucous that kill bacteria
  19. What are Lymphocytes and IgA?
    antibodies that fight off bacteria
  20. What is the pharynx?
    the tube that leads from the nasal cavity to the larynx
  21. What are the parts of the larynx?
    • Nasopharynx
    • Oropharynx
    • Laryngopharynx
  22. What is the nasopharynx?
    • made up of pseudostratified columner epithelium
    • portion of tube behind the nose
  23. What is the Oropharynx?
    • made up of stratified squamous epithelium
    • tube behind your mouth that leads to your larynx
  24. What is the Laryngopharynx?
    • made up of stratified squamous epithelium
    • tube down your throat to your larynx
  25. What is the Larynx? What are the functions?
    • Your voice box
    • separates food and fluid from you airways
    • produces sound and acts as a sphincter (round) muscle to close off the airway during muscle contraction so your contraction is stronger such as when lifiting something heavy
  26. What are the parts of the larynx?
    • Hyaline Cartilage
    • Muscular Walls
    • Glottis
    • Eppiglottis
    • False Vocal Cords
    • True Vocal Cords
  27. What is the Hyaline Cartilage?
    • nine c shaped rings of hyaline cartilage in the front
    • they make the framework of the larynx
  28. What are the muscular walls
    help make sound and swallow
    help make sound and swallow
  29. What is the Glottis
    top opening of the larynx
  30. What is the Eppiglottis
    the flap that opens and closes to prevent food and fluid from entering the larynx through the glottis
  31. What are the False Vocal Cords?
    • aid that glottis to close during swallowing
    • it pulls on the glottis and the sphincter muscle closes
  32. What are the True Vocal Cords?
    • produce sound
    • high pitched sounds made by shorter thiner voacl cords (air can move quicker there)
    • Lowe pitched sounds made by longer fatter cords
  33. What is the Trachea? What are the functions?
    • the windpipe
    • cleans, warms, and moistens the air comming in
  34. What are the Parts of the Trachea?
    • made up of many rings of hyaline cartialage
    • ciliated psudostratified epithelium
  35. What is the bronchi?
    tubes that carry air in and out
  36. What are the parts of the bronchi?
    • Left and right primary bronchi branch into secondary bronchi (there is one secondary bronchi for each lobe. in your left lung you have two lobes so two secondary bronchi and inyour right lung you have 3). the secondary bronchi branch into tertriary bronchi which branch into bronchioles (smaller tubes) to terminal bronchioles (an end or stop) which are the last without alveoli sacs
    • there is then the respiratory bronchioles which have sacs to the alveolar ducts to the alveolar sacs which are clusters of alveoli
  37. What are alveoli?
    they exchange gas
  38. What are alveolar sacs?
    clusters of alveoli
  39. How many types of alveolar cells are there
  40. What are type 1 alveolar cells
    simple squamous epithelium that allow gases to diffuse in and/or out
  41. What are type 2 alveolar cells?
    • simple cuboidal epithelium
    • surfactant- fluid that helps you deal with pressure
  42. Whate are Dust cells?
    • alveolar macrophages in the blood
    • leukocytes that clean up any infections
  43. What are smooth muscle rings?
    • they open the tube for more air
    • close it for less air
  44. What are Elastic connective tissue fibers?
    they help push the air out of your lungs