Physiology thyroid gland
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Hormones of thyroid gland?
What hormones are secreted by the follicular and parafollicular cells of the thyroid?
- follicular cells-T3 and T4
What hormone controls the growth of the thyroid gland and the synthesis of its hormones
TSH from the Ant. Pituitary
Iodide trapping is thru and active transport or passive diffusion?
What drugs inhibit iodide trapping?
What happens once iodide is uptaken into a follicular cell by active transport?
It is oxidased by peroxidase
What enzyme oxidizes uptaken iodide?
What two drugs prevent oxidation of iodide?
What enzyme performs organification of tyrosie?
What results upon organification of tyrosine?
- MIT---mono iodo tyrosine
- DIT- di iodo tyrosine
What happens upon oxidative coupling of 2 DIT?
MIT and DIT
TSH affects what step in the thyroid synthesis?
In what form does T3 AND T4 exist in a follicular cell?
conjugated to thyroglobulin
Triiodothyronine is essential in the first 3 years of the postnatal period for the develpment of what system?
Central nervous system
- due to hypothyrodism during infancy
- mental retardation
- short stature
- developmental milestones of the child are absent
What effect does thyroxin have on growth and development?
It potentiates the action of GH
What effect would somatostatin, glucocorticoids, dopamine and chronic illness have on the thyroid gland?
it would block secretion of thyroid hormone by blocking the release of TSH from the ant. pituitary
Low iodine would have what effect on the thyroid hormones?
Low thyroid hormone levels
Estrogen has what effect on thyroid hormone production?
increases it by stimulating secretion of TSH
TSH receptor stimulating antibodies would have what effect on the thyroid production?
It would increase it...as in Graves disease
Lithium has what effect on thyroid gland?
decreases thyroid gland secretion
What would be the levels of TSH, TRH in Graves disease?
They would be low bc, the TSH stimulating antibodies stimulate the secretion constitutively
Under what condition would thyroglobulins be found in circulation?
- thyroid inflammation
Whats the difference between cretinism and myxedema as far as who it affects?
In which thyroid associated disease is there edema?
Husky voice is seen in what thyroid disease?
In what condition would the person appear yellow?
Myxedema---carotenemia..bc of lack of conversion from beta-carotene to vitamin A
What thyroid disease results in infertility?
Which part of the cortex is a "modified ganglion of the sympathetic nervous system"?
Adrenal Medulla--catecholamines--adrenaline, noadrenaline
What are the regions of the adrenal cotex
- Zona glomerulosa--aldosterone
- Zona Fasciculata--androgens, glucocorticoids
- Zona Reticulata -androgens, glucocorticoids
Cortisol has permissive action on which hormones?
- catecholamines--in brain causes euphoria/epilepsy
- direct anti-insulin effect of GH
To help with digestion, what should be administered with steroid hormones?
What causes eosinophil sequesteration in the liver?
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