Jessica

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Author:
jchampio
ID:
62272
Filename:
Jessica
Updated:
2011-01-26 21:16:30
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Chem exam
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chapters 1 + 2
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  1. The study of matter
    Chemistry
  2. anything that has mass and takes up space, can change from one form to another.
    Matter
  3. substances, are used up and others formd in their place

    Al+Br3= AlBr2
    chemical change
  4. matter does not lose its identity

    density, color, melting point, physical state (gas, liquid, solid)
    physical change
  5. statement based on direct experience
    Fact
  6. proposed statement without actual proof, to explain a set of facts or their relationship. Do experiments to test
    Hypothesis
  7. creation of a relationship among certain observed phenomena, which has been verified to some extent.
    Theory
  8. - has no definite shape or volum
    -expands to fill whatever container it is put into
    -is highly compressible
    Gas
  9. -has no definite shape but a definite volume
    -is only slightly compressible
    Liquid
  10. -has a definite shape and volume.
    -is essentially imcompressible
    solid
  11. oF= 9\5oC+32
    convert from celsius to fahrenheit
  12. oC = 5/9(oF -32)
    Convert oF to oC
  13. K=oC + 273
    Convert oC to K
  14. d=m/v

    m/d=v
    v * d= m
    m=g
    v=ml
    d=g/ml
    Density formula
  15. the ratio of mass to volume
    Density
  16. the density of a substance compared to water as a standard.
    = density without units measured
    Specific Gravity
  17. The capacity to do work
    Energy
  18. the energy of motion

    - increases as the object's velocity increases
    • Kinectic energy (KE)
    • as the same velocity, a heavier object has a greater KE
  19. the energy an object has because of its position; stored energy
    Potential energy
  20. energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
    energy can be converted from one form to another
    law of conservation of energy
  21. is a form of energy.
    flows from the hotter object to the cooler one.
    measured in calories (cal)
    TEMPERATURE IS NOT A FORM OF ENERGY!!!
    heat
  22. anything that occupies space and has mass
    matter
  23. a combination of two or more pure substances
    ex: blood, air, gasoline, soap
    mixture
  24. fixed composition; cannot be further purified.
    pure substances.

    mixtures can be physically separable into pure substances
  25. a type of mixture
    nonuniform composition
    heterogenous matter
  26. a type of mixture
    uniform composition throughout
    homogenous matter
  27. cannot be subdivided by chemical or physical means
    elements
  28. elements united in fixed ratios
    elements combine chemically to form ...
    Compounds
  29. is a tightly bound combination of two or more atoms that acts as a single unit
    molecule
  30. are formed by the chemical combination of two or more of the same or different kinds of atoms.
    Compounds
  31. John Dalton founded this.
    all matter is composed of very tiny particles
    all ____of the same element have the same chemical properities.
    ___ of different elements have different chemical properties.
    Atoms
  32. consist of single atoms.
    example: He and Ne
    Monatomic Elements
  33. H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
    diatomic elements.
  34. Three or more atoms per molecule
    O3 , P4 , S8
    Polyatomic Elements
  35. the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
    mass number
  36. the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
    -bottom number in isotopes
    atomic number
  37. atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
    • isotopes
    • - most elements found on Earth are mixtures of isotopes.
  38. -solids at room temp, execpt HG which is a liquid.
    shiny, conduct electricity,and are ductile and malleable.
    -form alloys (solutions of one metal dissolved in another)
    -in chemical reactions,they tend to give up electrons
    • Metals
    • -example brass for example, is an alloy of copper and zinc
  39. -except for H they lie on the right side of the Periodic Table.
    -except for graphite, do nt conduct electricity
    -in chemical reactions they tend to accept electrons
    nonmetals
  40. -some of the properties of metals and some of nonmetals; example shiny like metals but do not conduct electricity.
    -
    metalloids
  41. group 1a
    alkali metals
  42. group 7a
    halogens
  43. the lowest energy state of an atom
    ground state
  44. principle energy levels
    1,2,3,4...
  45. electrons are always moving so it is posessing ____
    Kinectic Energy KE
  46. decreases from left to right
    increases from bottom to top
    atomic Size

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