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The study of matter
anything that has mass and takes up space, can change from one form to another.
substances, are used up and others formd in their place
matter does not lose its identity
density, color, melting point, physical state (gas, liquid, solid)
statement based on direct experience
proposed statement without actual proof, to explain a set of facts or their relationship. Do experiments to test
creation of a relationship among certain observed phenomena, which has been verified to some extent.
- has no definite shape or volum
-expands to fill whatever container it is put into
-is highly compressible
-has no definite shape but a definite volume
-is only slightly compressible
-has a definite shape and volume.
-is essentially imcompressible
convert from celsius to fahrenheit
oC = 5/9(oF -32)
Convert oF to oC
K=oC + 273
Convert oC to K
v * d= m
the ratio of mass to volume
the density of a substance compared to water as a standard.
= density without units measured
The capacity to do work
the energy of motion
- increases as the object's velocity increases
- Kinectic energy (KE)
- as the same velocity, a heavier object has a greater KE
the energy an object has because of its position; stored energy
energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
energy can be converted from one form to another
law of conservation of energy
is a form of energy.
flows from the hotter object to the cooler one.
measured in calories (cal)
TEMPERATURE IS NOT A FORM OF ENERGY!!!
anything that occupies space and has mass
a combination of two or more pure substances
ex: blood, air, gasoline, soap
fixed composition; cannot be further purified.
mixtures can be physically separable into pure substances
a type of mixture
a type of mixture
uniform composition throughout
cannot be subdivided by chemical or physical means
elements united in fixed ratios
elements combine chemically to form ...
is a tightly bound combination of two or more atoms that acts as a single unit
are formed by the chemical combination of two or more of the same or different kinds of atoms.
John Dalton founded this.
all matter is composed of very tiny particles
all ____of the same element have the same chemical properities.
___ of different elements have different chemical properties.
consist of single atoms.
example: He and Ne
H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
Three or more atoms per molecule
O3 , P4 , S8
the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
-bottom number in isotopes
atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
- - most elements found on Earth are mixtures of isotopes.
-solids at room temp, execpt HG which is a liquid.
shiny, conduct electricity,and are ductile and malleable.
-form alloys (solutions of one metal dissolved in another)
-in chemical reactions,they tend to give up electrons
- -example brass for example, is an alloy of copper and zinc
-except for H they lie on the right side of the Periodic Table.
-except for graphite, do nt conduct electricity
-in chemical reactions they tend to accept electrons
-some of the properties of metals and some of nonmetals; example shiny like metals but do not conduct electricity.
the lowest energy state of an atom
principle energy levels
electrons are always moving so it is posessing ____
Kinectic Energy KE
decreases from left to right
increases from bottom to top