Card Set Information
What is Social Psychology about
what people actually think, feel, and do in any given situation.
offers an empirical test to determine what is actually true
What does the Scientific Method entail?
Testable predictions (predictions) about human nature.
Systematic, *multiple observations
Empirical measures of behavior
the scientific study of how people think about, influence and relate to others.
Exp. How accurate are our first impressions?
What are successful tactics of influence persuasion?
Two Major parts of Social Psychology
concepts, constructs, and theories of interests.
What is actually hypothesized and measured
Conceptual and Empirical should be as similar as possible.
principles that explain predicted and observed events.
Theories are built from confirmed hypotheses and other empirical evidence.
testable predictions about how people will respond under certain conditions.
Hypotheses are generated from existing theories
measure the concept of interest as accurately as possible.
measures what it is suppose to measure.
What are the forms of aggression
Operational Definitions and Measures should be reliable and valid
main aspects of human experience
Feelings and emotions
thoughts or mental process
Example of Affect
Measures heart-rate while people watch a violent movie
Example of Behavior
Measures how many times someone hits a punching bag after being insulted
Example of Cognition
Ask someone to report the thoughts after performing an aggression activity.
as one variable goes up so does the other one
as one variable goes down the other goes up.
Correlation does not imply causation.
Ex. The increase in ice cream sales and the increase in the murder rate.
Strengths of Correlations
established that two variables are related
Weakness of Correlations
Can't explain causal relationships.
outside the lab in natural settings
What is manipulated or controlled in an experiment
What is measured. Outcome variable (usually one or more of the Triad)
Strengths in Field Experiments
Lots of realism. Measures real world phenomena.
Weakness in Field Experiments
Can't make definitive claims of causality.
is the settings of the experiment similar to the real world.
Does the experiment evoke the same process as in the real world.
Self as Impulse
inner most thoughts and feelings
Self as Institution
the way a person acts in public.
Exp. Soldier scared on the inside but saves people and risks his life.
Is he a coward or a hero
different and sets it apart from others.
different roles a person plays
attending to your inner states.
attending to how you are perceived.
the process by which the self controls and changes its self.
Charles Horton Cooley
People learn about themselves though others
George Herbert Mead
what everyone views and tells you about your self (compiled)
Knowing or examining one's own inner thoughts and feelings
examining the difference between ones self to another person
Upward Social Comparison
comparing self to others that are better
Downward Social Comparison
comparing ones self to others that are worse
Wanting to perform an activity for its own sake
Performing an activity for something that results form doing the activity.
exp. painting for money
Over Justification Effect
the tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have been associated with rewards
wanting to learn the truth about ones self no matter what it is
desire to learn favorable or flattering things about the self (inflates positive)
is the desire to learn about confirming aspects about one's self
putting obstacles in the way of ones own performance so that the anticipated failure can be blamed on the obstacles
Information bearing on the self is processed more thoroughly and more deeply and remembered better than other information
things gain value to a person when it is associated with them
a pattern where people claim credit for success but deny blame for failure.
a measure of how desirable one would be to other people
Error Management Theory
the idea that both man and women seek to minimize the most costly type of error but the men's goals, and hence worst error, differ
Status Quo Bias
the preference to keep things the way they are rather than change
the tendency to take what ever course of action does not require you to do anything (aka Default option)
the idea that people want what is forbidden
believe that traits are fixed
Those who believe that traits are subject to change
belief that one's actions will not bring about desired outcomes, leading one to give up and quit
the theory that people need to feel at leas some degree of autonomy and internal motivation.
Panic Button Effect
a reduction in stress or suffering due to a belief that one has the option of escaping or controlling the situation even if one doesn't exercise
an idea of some desired future state
a tendency to experience automatic, intrusive thoughts about a goal whose pursuit has been interrupted.
when the activation of a focal goal the person is working on inhibits the accessibility of alternative goals
the tendency for plans to be overtly optimistic because the planner fails to allow for unexpected problems
Keeping track of the behaviors or response to be regulated
Test Operate Test Exit
Test self against standards
Operate make changes
Test to see if the changes are good if yes
Exit the change process
Capacity for Change
Operate phase making the change
when someone brings failure misfortune to themselves.
Observing our behavior and actions as we would observe others. Then interpret action
people have a Merged Identity with others
Knowledge of one's self
Evaluation of one's self
measures self report
problems - self presenting
measures provide more content specific index of self-esteem
Measures self-esteem via priming
it measures provide a less biased measure of general positivity
trying to avoid loss of esteem