Test 1

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Test 1
2011-01-31 13:17:10
Social Psychology

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  1. What is Social Psychology about
    what people actually think, feel, and do in any given situation.
  2. offers an empirical test to determine what is actually true
    Scientific Method
  3. What does the Scientific Method entail?
    • Testable predictions (predictions) about human nature.
    • Systematic, *multiple observations
    • Empirical measures of behavior
  4. Social Psychology
    • the scientific study of how people think about, influence and relate to others.
    • Exp. How accurate are our first impressions?
    • What are successful tactics of influence persuasion?
  5. Two Major parts of Social Psychology
    • Conceptual
    • Empirical
  6. Conceptual
    concepts, constructs, and theories of interests.
  7. Empirical
    What is actually hypothesized and measured
  8. Conceptual and Empirical should be as similar as possible.
  9. Theories
    principles that explain predicted and observed events.
  10. Theories are built from confirmed hypotheses and other empirical evidence.
  11. Hypothesis
    testable predictions about how people will respond under certain conditions.
  12. Hypotheses are generated from existing theories
  13. Operational Definitions
    measure the concept of interest as accurately as possible.
  14. Validity
    measures what it is suppose to measure.
  15. Reliability
    is consistent
  16. What are the forms of aggression
    • physical
    • verbal
    • relational
  17. Operational Definitions and Measures should be reliable and valid
  18. The Triad
    • main aspects of human experience
    • Affect
    • Behavior
    • Cognition
  19. Affect
    Feelings and emotions
  20. Behavior
    actions taken
  21. Cognitions
    thoughts or mental process
  22. Example of Affect
    Measures heart-rate while people watch a violent movie
  23. Example of Behavior
    Measures how many times someone hits a punching bag after being insulted
  24. Example of Cognition
    Ask someone to report the thoughts after performing an aggression activity.
  25. Positive Correlaiton
    as one variable goes up so does the other one
  26. Negative Correlation
    as one variable goes down the other goes up.
  27. Correlation does not imply causation.
    Ex. The increase in ice cream sales and the increase in the murder rate.
  28. Strengths of Correlations
    established that two variables are related
  29. Weakness of Correlations
    Can't explain causal relationships.
  30. Lab Studies
  31. Field Studies
    outside the lab in natural settings
  32. Independent Variable
    What is manipulated or controlled in an experiment
  33. Dependent Variable
    What is measured. Outcome variable (usually one or more of the Triad)
  34. Strengths in Field Experiments
    Lots of realism. Measures real world phenomena.
  35. Weakness in Field Experiments
    Can't make definitive claims of causality.
  36. Mundane Realism
    is the settings of the experiment similar to the real world.
  37. Experimental Realism
    Does the experiment evoke the same process as in the real world.
  38. Self as Impulse
    inner most thoughts and feelings
  39. Self as Institution
    • the way a person acts in public.
    • Exp. Soldier scared on the inside but saves people and risks his life.
    • Is he a coward or a hero
  40. Inter-dependent self-construal
    different and sets it apart from others.
  41. Social roles
    different roles a person plays
  42. Private self-awareness
    attending to your inner states.
  43. Public self-awareness
    attending to how you are perceived.
  44. Self-Regulation
    the process by which the self controls and changes its self.
  45. Looking-glass Self
    • Charles Horton Cooley
    • People learn about themselves though others
  46. Generalized Other
    • George Herbert Mead
    • what everyone views and tells you about your self (compiled)
  47. Introspection
    Knowing or examining one's own inner thoughts and feelings
  48. Social Comparison
    examining the difference between ones self to another person
  49. Upward Social Comparison
    comparing self to others that are better
  50. Downward Social Comparison
    comparing ones self to others that are worse
  51. Intrinsic Motivations
    Wanting to perform an activity for its own sake
  52. Extrinsic Motivations
    • Performing an activity for something that results form doing the activity.
    • exp. painting for money
  53. Over Justification Effect
    the tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have been associated with rewards
  54. Appraisal Motive
    wanting to learn the truth about ones self no matter what it is
  55. Self-Enhancement Motive
    desire to learn favorable or flattering things about the self (inflates positive)
  56. Consistency Motive
    is the desire to learn about confirming aspects about one's self
  57. Self-handicapping
    putting obstacles in the way of ones own performance so that the anticipated failure can be blamed on the obstacles
  58. Self-Reference effect
    Information bearing on the self is processed more thoroughly and more deeply and remembered better than other information
  59. Endowment Effect
    things gain value to a person when it is associated with them
  60. Self-Serving Bias
    a pattern where people claim credit for success but deny blame for failure.
  61. Socio-Meter
    a measure of how desirable one would be to other people
  62. Error Management Theory
    the idea that both man and women seek to minimize the most costly type of error but the men's goals, and hence worst error, differ
  63. Status Quo Bias
    the preference to keep things the way they are rather than change
  64. Omission bias
    the tendency to take what ever course of action does not require you to do anything (aka Default option)
  65. Reactance Theory
    the idea that people want what is forbidden
  66. Entity Theorists
    believe that traits are fixed
  67. Incremental Theorists
    Those who believe that traits are subject to change
  68. Learned Helplessness
    belief that one's actions will not bring about desired outcomes, leading one to give up and quit
  69. Self-Determination Theory
    the theory that people need to feel at leas some degree of autonomy and internal motivation.
  70. Panic Button Effect
    a reduction in stress or suffering due to a belief that one has the option of escaping or controlling the situation even if one doesn't exercise
  71. Goal
    an idea of some desired future state
  72. Zeigranic Effect
    a tendency to experience automatic, intrusive thoughts about a goal whose pursuit has been interrupted.
  73. Goal-Shielding
    when the activation of a focal goal the person is working on inhibits the accessibility of alternative goals
  74. Planning Fallacy
    the tendency for plans to be overtly optimistic because the planner fails to allow for unexpected problems
  75. Monitoring
    Keeping track of the behaviors or response to be regulated
  76. TOTE
    Test Operate Test Exit

    • Test self against standards
    • Operate make changes
    • Test to see if the changes are good if yes
    • Exit the change process
  77. Capacity for Change
    Operate phase making the change
  78. Self-defeating Behavior
    when someone brings failure misfortune to themselves.
  79. Self Perception
    Observing our behavior and actions as we would observe others. Then interpret action
  80. Vicarious Self-Perception
    people have a Merged Identity with others
  81. Self -Concept
    Knowledge of one's self
  82. Self -Esteem
    Evaluation of one's self
  83. Explicit
    • measures self report
    • problems - self presenting
    • measures provide more content specific index of self-esteem
  84. Implicit
    • Measures self-esteem via priming
    • it measures provide a less biased measure of general positivity
  85. Self-Protection
    trying to avoid loss of esteem