quiz #1 – fractures and fracture management

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BPT
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62304
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quiz #1 – fractures and fracture management
Updated:
2011-01-26 22:46:38
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orthopedics
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fractures and fracture management
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  1. what are the three classifications of fractures
    • traumatic fractures
    • fatigue fractures
    • pathological fractures
  2. what are the two types of traumatic fractures
    • low-energy – caused by a stumble or fall
    • high-energy – caused by an automobile accident
  3. what are fatigue fractures caused by
    repeated stress
  4. what are pathological fractures caused by
    disease, tumors
  5. what kind of fractures is
    • fatigue fracture
    • chronic condition
  6. what are some further classifications of fractures
    • open
    • closed
    • location
    • displaced
    • intra-articular
  7. what kind of fracture is this?
    • closed fracture
    • gunstock deformity
  8. true or false – an open fracture breaks the skin
    true
  9. what kind of fractures are these: 1 – 6
    • 1transverse fracture
    • 2 oblique fracture
    • 3 spiral fracture
    • 4comminuted fracture
    • 5 compression fracture
    • 6 green stick fracture
  10. compression fractures are most common in what area
    lumbar spine
  11. what is a nondisplaced fracture
    there is a break but the bone is not angled
  12. what does ORIF stand for
    open reduction internal fixation
  13. what kind of fracture is this
    fracture dislocation
  14. true or false – when providing rehabilitation it is important to only consider the joint inferior of the fracture
    false – it is important to consider the joint above and below the fracture
  15. what happens during the first and second week of healing of the fracture
    wound site fills with blood and the ends of the fractured bone become necrotic. The blood clot is invaded with macrophages to remove the necrotic tissue, and osteoblast move-in to produce bone
  16. what happens during the 2-6 weeks
    callus forms that holds the fracture together. Ossification begins
  17. what happens during 6 – 12 weeks of fracture healing
    solid bone ossification occurs across the fracture site. The bone regained significant strength at this time
  18. what happens in bone healing from weeks 12 – 26
    mature callus
  19. what happens during bone healing from six months through 12 months
    gaps of cortical edges are bridged
  20. what happens during bone healing from the first year through the second year
    bone remodels, becomes smooth, normal structure is restored
  21. why do doctors offset bone fractures so much in children
    because if they put the top end directly above the bottom end there will be an overproduction of osteoblast activity, which will cause the leg to be longer than the other.
  22. what are some complications of fractures
    • malunion
    • nonunion
    • compartment syndrome
    • neural injury
    • deep vein thrombosis
    • AVN
    • RSD
  23. what is this condition
    anterior compartment syndrome
  24. what is the cause of anterior compartment syndrome
    trauma
  25. is anterior compartment syndrome a medical emergency
    yes
  26. when assessing anterior compartment syndrome what should you check
    • sensation in the toes
    • a pulse in the foot – dorsal pedal pulse
  27. the condition is this
    • neural injury posterior fracture
    • axillary nerve that travels around the neck of the humoral head
  28. AVN stands for
    avascular necrosis
  29. what is avascular necrosis
    • is a condition where bone does not receive a blood supply resulting in death of the bone
    • typically the femoral head
  30. what does RSD stand for
    reflex sympathetic disorder
  31. what is reflex sympathetic disorder
    • Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), also called complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), is a chronic, painful, and progressive neurological condition that affects the skin, muscles, joints, and bones. The syndrome usually develops in an injured limb, such as a broken leg, or following surgery. However,
    • many cases of RSD involve only a minor injury, such as a sprain. And in
    • some cases, no precipitating event can be identified.
  32. how do you treat reflex sympathetic disorder
    • do everything you can to stop the pain that the patient is experiencing
    • stop pain with medications, heat, cold, electrical stimulation, etc.
    • range of motion and activity in the involved limb
  33. what condition is this
    reflex sympathetic disorder
  34. reflex sympathetic disorder is commonly associated with a fracture that occurs in the wrist. What is this fracture called
    collies fracture
  35. avascular necrosis is, and what population – older or younger population
    older
  36. what is Holman's sign
    • a sign used to identify deep vein thrombosis
    • not very reliable
  37. how should deep vein thrombosis be assessed
    • with the following tool
  38. how should close reduction fractures be managed
    immobilization – splendid/brace, cast, internal fixation or external fixation
  39. how should open reduction fractures be managed
    • internal fixation
    • external fixation
  40. what kind of fixation is this
    • open reduction internal fixation
    • use of plates, screws, pins, rods
  41. what kind of fixation is this
    external fixation
  42. what are some principles for physical therapy fracture management
    • most fractures immobilize 6 to 8 weeks ( less in children.... Longer in elderly)
    • avoid two and 3D stresses on bone or early
    • if you move a limb that is fractured, early use a single plane motion
    • ask about callous information is asked to move a limb
    • look at joints above and below fracture sites
    • attempt to gain x-ray so you can see the fracture type and severity
  43. true or false – whenever you get up patient that has had a fracture you should ask the doctor about the appropriate weight-bearing status
    true
  44. what is the management for fractures post-op
    • nonweightbearing eight – 10 weeks
    • early range of motion started by two weeks postop
    • soft tissue in wound management first two weeks
  45. be sure to read PowerPoint because some information I was not able to include

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