Anatomy Chapter 08

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Anatomy Chapter 08
2011-04-11 22:39:16
Human Anatomy

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  1. What is the process which results in these cells specializing?
  2. The approximately 100 trillion cells that make up the human body arise from what process of cell division that produces two identical daughter cells?
  3. What scientific developmental events take place between conception and birth?
  4. What is the 38-week period of development in the female reproductive system?
    prenatal period
  5. What is the study of development during this period?
  6. What is the biological specialty that studies anatomical and physiological changes from the conception of a new individual to that individuals death?
    developmental biology
  7. What are the three periods of development from the moment of conception to birth?
    pre-embryonic, embryonic, & fetal
  8. What are haploid cells which are capable of producing a new diploid individual?
  9. What are diploid cells which are distinguished from the above cells?
    somatic cells
  10. What is the distinguishing characteristic of human diploid cells?
    they contain 23 pairs of chromosomes
  11. What is the distinguishing characteristic of human haploid cells?
    they contain 23 chromosomes
  12. What type of cell division produces haploid cells?
  13. What type of cell division functions in growth, cell replacement, and wound healing?
  14. How do these two types of cell division differ?
    • mitosis produces diploid identical daughter cells with no crossing over
    • meoisis produces 4 genetically unique haploid daughter cells with crossing over
  15. Where in the body does reduction division occur?
  16. Why is reduction division important?
    maintains correct number of chromosomes & produces variation
  17. What is a fertilized egg?
  18. What period of development ranges from the moment of conception until the completion of implantation into the uterine wall?
  19. What process restores the diploid number of chromosomes, determines the sex of an individual, and initiates cleavage?
  20. Where does fertilization usually take place?
    uterine tube
  21. What series of synchronized mitotic divisions results in an increase in the number of cells?
  22. What is the compacted 16-cell stage of development?
  23. In what stage do the products of conception enter the uterus?
  24. What stage of development occurs as fluids enter products of conception?
  25. What are the two distinct components of this fluid-filled sphere?
    trophoblast & embryoblast
  26. Which of the two distinct components of the blastocyst becomes the embryo?
  27. What is the process by which the blastocyst burrows into and embeds within the endometrium?
  28. When does plantation begin?
    by about day 7
  29. The inner cell mass (embryoblast) divides into two cell layers that form a flat disc. What is the anatomical term for this disc?
    bilaminar germinal disc or blastodisc
  30. What is the collective term for the membranes formed to mediate exchange between the uterus and the embryo?
    extraembryonic membranes
  31. Which membrane forms first and is involved in the formation of blood cells and blood vessels?
    yolk sac
  32. Which membrane forms a fluid-filled sac immediately around the embryo?
  33. Which membrane is outermost and eventually forms the placenta?
  34. What is the organ of exchange between the mother and the embryo?
  35. What two layers of tissue contribute to its formation?
    chorion & functional layer of the uterus
  36. What structure initally connects the embryo to the organ of exchange?
    connecting stalk
  37. What does the connecting stalk develop into?
    umbilical cord
  38. What stalklike structures form from the chorion?
    chorionic villi
  39. In the placenta do the mother's blood and the embryo's blood mix?
  40. What is the common name for the placenta?
  41. What process results in the formation of three primary germ layers?
  42. What are the three primary germ layers?
    ectoderm, mesoderm, & endoderm
  43. Using the definition of the authrs of your text, when does the blastocyst become an embryo?
    when the trilaminar structure is formed
  44. The embryo is initially a flat disc. When does it become a cylinder?
    late 3rd and 4th weeks
  45. What type of folding results in the formation of the head and the buttocks?
    cephalocaudal folding
  46. What type of folding results in the formation of the torso?
    transverse folding
  47. What structures form the ectoderm?
    nervous system & other external layers
  48. What inductive action transforms a portion of the ectoderm into a hollow tube which develops into the nervous system?
  49. What si the process by which organs develop?
  50. What are substances that may cause birth defects?
  51. During what time period does the fetal period occur?
    3rd month to birth