Anatomy Chapter 09

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LaizyDaizy79
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62314
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Anatomy Chapter 09
Updated:
2011-04-11 22:40:30
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Human Anatomy
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Histology
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  1. What is an aggregation of cells of similar structure and function?
    tissues
  2. What is the study of tissues?
    histology
  3. How many principal tissue types are there?
    4
  4. List the four primary tissue types.
    epithelial, connective, muscle, & nervous
  5. What primary tissue type acts as a covering or lining?
    epithelial tissue
  6. What are the two major categories of epithelial tissue?
    glandular & membranous
  7. One side of membranous epithelia (the exposed side) is always exposed to what?
    a body surface, lumen, or cavity
  8. One side of epithelium (the unexposed side) is attached to what?
    the basement membrane
  9. What two factors are used to classify membranous epithelia?
    layering or stratification & shape of apical cells
  10. What are the three classifications of epithelium based on cell layers?
    simple, stratified, & pseudostratified
  11. What are the classificatinos of epithelium based on shape?
    squamous, cuboidal, columnar, & transitional
  12. What type of epithelium consists of a single layer of flattened cells?
    simple squamous epithelium
  13. What type of epithelium consists of a single layer of cells that are as tall as they are wide?
    simple cuboidal epithelium
  14. What type of epithelium is composed of a single layer of tall, narrow cells?
    simple columnar epithelium
  15. What are the two general types of epithelium composed of a single layer of cells that are taller than wide?
    ciliated simple columnar epithelium & nonciliated simple columnar epithelium
  16. Simple nonciliated columnar epithelium often has what finger-like projections?
    microvilli
  17. What is the function of microvilli?
    increases the surface area
  18. What unicellular glands occur within simple columnar epithelium?
    goblet cells
  19. What do goblet cells secrete?
    mucus
  20. What type of epithelium is composed of multiple layers with the apical layer being flat?
    stratified squamous epithelium
  21. What is the function of stratified squamous epithelium?
    protect underlying tissues
  22. What two general types of stratified squamous epithelium occur?
    keratinized & non-keratinized
  23. Where does keratinized stratified squamous epithelium occur?
    epidermis
  24. What type of epithelium is typically composed of two layers with the apical layer being cube-shaped cells?
    stratified cuboidal epithelium
  25. What type of epithelium is composed of two or more layers of cells with the apical layer made of cells taller than they are wide?
    stratified columnar epithelium
  26. What types of epithelium appears to be layered but is not? All of the cells are attached to the basement membrane.
    pseudostratified columnar epithelium
  27. What type of epithelium may be stretched?
    transitional epithelium
  28. Glands arise from epithelial tissue invaginating into what type of underlying tissue?
    connective tissue
  29. What is the function of a gland?
    produces substances for use or elimination elsewhere in the body
  30. What are the two general types of glands?
    endocrine & exocrine
  31. What type of gland releases its product directly into the bloodstream?
    endocrine
  32. What type of gland releases its products onto an epithelial tissue?
    exocrine
  33. What type of tissue supports other tissues both physcially and physiologically and also protects and binds other tissues?
    connective tissues
  34. From which of the primary germ layers does connective tissue arise?
    mesoderm
  35. What are the two broad categories of connective tissue proper?
    loose & dense connective tissue proper
  36. What type of loose connective tissue surrounds nerves, blood vessels, and individual muscle cells?
    areolar connective tissue
  37. Areolar connective tissue forms shiny layers of binding tissue commonly known as what?
    fascia
  38. What type of loose connective tissue is commonly known as "fat"?
    adipose connective tissue
  39. What type of connective tissue forms a meshwork that acts as a structural framework for organs such as the spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes?
    reticular connective tissue
  40. What are the three types of dense connective tissue?
    dense regular, dense irregular, & dense elastic
  41. What type of dense connective tissue is composed of densely packed, parallel collagen fibers?
    dense regular
  42. What type of dense connective tissue is composed of collagen fibers extending in all directions?
    dense irregular
  43. What type of dense connective tissue contains elastic tissue?
    dense elastic
  44. What are the two types of supporting connective tissue?
    cartilage & bone
  45. Which of the two types of supporting connective tissue is more flexible and found where the body needs support and must withstand deformation?
    cartilage
  46. What is the most common type of cartilage?
    hyaline
  47. What type of cartilage has numerous course, readily visible fibers arranged in irregular bundles between large chondrocytes?
    fibrocartilage
  48. What type of cartilage contains numerous elastic fibers?
    elastic cartilage
  49. What type of connective tissue is composed of 1/3 organic components and 2/3 calcium salts?
    bone
  50. What dense irregular connective tissue covers almost all bone surfaces?
    periosteum
  51. There are two forms of bone. Which is solid and forms the outer shell of an individual bone?
    cortical bone
  52. Which type of bone forms a latticework inside of individual bones?
    cancellous bone
  53. What is the fluid connective tissue?
    blood
  54. What is the liquid portion of blood?
    plasma
  55. What type of membrane lines passageways and compartments that open to the exerior?
    mucus membrane
  56. What type of membrane lines enclosed cavities and produces a thin, water fluid?
    serous membrane
  57. Serous membranes have what two parts?
    parietal & visceral layers
  58. What is the largest membrane of the body?
    cutaneous membrane
  59. What type of membran elines the capsules of freely movable joints?
    synovial membrane
  60. What type of muscle tissue has long fibers that are striated, multinucleated, and voluntary?
    skeletal muscle tissue
  61. What type of muscle tissue has short, branched fibers with one or two central nuclei, striations and intercalated discs?
    cardiac muscle tissue
  62. What type of muscle tissue has short, fusiform, nonstriated fibers and is involuntary?
    smooth muscle tissue
  63. What type of cells within neural tissue are specialized to detect stimuli, process information, and rapidly transmit electrical impulses?
    neuron
  64. What are the three main parts of neurons?
    cell body, dendrites & axons
  65. What type of cells within neural tissue specialie in supporting, protecting, and providing a framework for others?
    glial cells

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