Anatomy Chapter 09
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Anatomy Chapter 09
What is an aggregation of cells of similar structure and function?
What is the study of tissues?
How many principal tissue types are there?
List the four primary tissue types.
epithelial, connective, muscle, & nervous
What primary tissue type acts as a covering or lining?
What are the two major categories of epithelial tissue?
glandular & membranous
One side of membranous epithelia (the exposed side) is always exposed to what?
a body surface, lumen, or cavity
One side of epithelium (the unexposed side) is attached to what?
the basement membrane
What two factors are used to classify membranous epithelia?
layering or stratification & shape of apical cells
What are the three classifications of epithelium based on cell layers?
simple, stratified, & pseudostratified
What are the classificatinos of epithelium based on shape?
squamous, cuboidal, columnar, & transitional
What type of epithelium consists of a single layer of flattened cells?
simple squamous epithelium
What type of epithelium consists of a single layer of cells that are as tall as they are wide?
simple cuboidal epithelium
What type of epithelium is composed of a single layer of tall, narrow cells?
simple columnar epithelium
What are the two general types of epithelium composed of a single layer of cells that are taller than wide?
ciliated simple columnar epithelium & nonciliated simple columnar epithelium
Simple nonciliated columnar epithelium often has what finger-like projections?
What is the function of microvilli?
increases the surface area
What unicellular glands occur within simple columnar epithelium?
What do goblet cells secrete?
What type of epithelium is composed of multiple layers with the apical layer being flat?
stratified squamous epithelium
What is the function of stratified squamous epithelium?
protect underlying tissues
What two general types of stratified squamous epithelium occur?
keratinized & non-keratinized
Where does keratinized stratified squamous epithelium occur?
What type of epithelium is typically composed of two layers with the apical layer being cube-shaped cells?
stratified cuboidal epithelium
What type of epithelium is composed of two or more layers of cells with the apical layer made of cells taller than they are wide?
stratified columnar epithelium
What types of epithelium appears to be layered but is not? All of the cells are attached to the basement membrane.
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
What type of epithelium may be stretched?
Glands arise from epithelial tissue invaginating into what type of underlying tissue?
What is the function of a gland?
produces substances for use or elimination elsewhere in the body
What are the two general types of glands?
endocrine & exocrine
What type of gland releases its product directly into the bloodstream?
What type of gland releases its products onto an epithelial tissue?
What type of tissue supports other tissues both physcially and physiologically and also protects and binds other tissues?
From which of the primary germ layers does connective tissue arise?
What are the two broad categories of connective tissue proper?
loose & dense connective tissue proper
What type of loose connective tissue surrounds nerves, blood vessels, and individual muscle cells?
areolar connective tissue
Areolar connective tissue forms shiny layers of binding tissue commonly known as what?
What type of loose connective tissue is commonly known as "fat"?
adipose connective tissue
What type of connective tissue forms a meshwork that acts as a structural framework for organs such as the spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes?
reticular connective tissue
What are the three types of dense connective tissue?
dense regular, dense irregular, & dense elastic
What type of dense connective tissue is composed of densely packed, parallel collagen fibers?
What type of dense connective tissue is composed of collagen fibers extending in all directions?
What type of dense connective tissue contains elastic tissue?
What are the two types of supporting connective tissue?
cartilage & bone
Which of the two types of supporting connective tissue is more flexible and found where the body needs support and must withstand deformation?
What is the most common type of cartilage?
What type of cartilage has numerous course, readily visible fibers arranged in irregular bundles between large chondrocytes?
What type of cartilage contains numerous elastic fibers?
What type of connective tissue is composed of 1/3 organic components and 2/3 calcium salts?
What dense irregular connective tissue covers almost all bone surfaces?
There are two forms of bone. Which is solid and forms the outer shell of an individual bone?
Which type of bone forms a latticework inside of individual bones?
What is the fluid connective tissue?
What is the liquid portion of blood?
What type of membrane lines passageways and compartments that open to the exerior?
What type of membrane lines enclosed cavities and produces a thin, water fluid?
Serous membranes have what two parts?
parietal & visceral layers
What is the largest membrane of the body?
What type of membran elines the capsules of freely movable joints?
What type of muscle tissue has long fibers that are striated, multinucleated, and voluntary?
skeletal muscle tissue
What type of muscle tissue has short, branched fibers with one or two central nuclei, striations and intercalated discs?
cardiac muscle tissue
What type of muscle tissue has short, fusiform, nonstriated fibers and is involuntary?
smooth muscle tissue
What type of cells within neural tissue are specialized to detect stimuli, process information, and rapidly transmit electrical impulses?
What are the three main parts of neurons?
cell body, dendrites & axons
What type of cells within neural tissue specialie in supporting, protecting, and providing a framework for others?