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Elizabethan Poor Law written in?
sisterhood of the Dames de Charite organized in France by St. Vincent de Paul in?
Baltimore Health Department established in?
Hospital Service established; later became Public Health Service in?
Sisters of Mercy established in Dublin, where nuns visited the poor
- Ladies Benevolent
Society of Charleston, South Carolina, founded in?
Lutheran deaconesses provided home visits in Kaiserwerth, Germany in?
- Florence Nightingale
visited Kaiserwerth, Germany, for 3 months of nurse training in?
Quarantineboard established in New Orleans; beginning of TB campaign in the US in?
District nursing established in Liverpool by William Rathbone in?
- Florence Nightingale
Training School for Nurses established at St. Thomas Hospital in London in?
- Beginning of Red Cross in?
Nurse focuses on illness care of individuals and families across the life span. The aim is to manage acute and chronic health conditions in the community and the
practice is family centered illness care.
The primary focus is either of the community or populations as in “public
health nursing” or of individuals, families, and groups in a community;
this has been called community health nursing.
specialty area whose primary focus is on the health care of communities
and populations rather than on individuals, groups, and families. The goal of
this specialty is to prevent disease and preserve, promote, restore, and
protect health for the community and population within it. “The greatest good
for the greatest number.”
Public Health Nursing
The key difference between CBN and CON is that CBN deal
primarily with illness-oriented care whereas CON provides health care to
promote quality of life. They both deal with individuals and families and the
CON also typically deals with groups in the community.
a scientific discipline that includes the study of epidemiology, statistics, and
assessment-including attention to behavioral, cultural, and economic factors-as
well as program planning and policy development.
described as what society collectively does to ensure that conditions
exist in which people can be healthy. It is a community-oriented,
population-focused specialty area.
-Overall mission: To organize community efforts that will use
scientific and technical knowledge to prevent disease and promote health.
Public Health core functions....?
- Assessment: systematic data
- collection on the population, monitoring the population’s health status, and
- making information available about the health of the community.
- Policy Development: refers to
- efforts to develop policies that support the health of the population,
- including using a scientific knowledge base to make policy decisions
- Assurance: making sure that
- essential community oriented health services are available. These services might
- include providing essential personal health services for those who would
- otherwise not receive them. Also includes making sure that a competent public
- health and personal health care workforce are available.
Health care services...?
- Primary: both primary care and public health services
- that are designed to meet the basic needs of people in communities at an affordable cost
- Secondary: services
- designed to detect and treat disease in the early acute stage
- Tertiary: services
- designed to limit the progression of disease or disability
- The base of the
- pyramid shows the effective services that will support the top tiers and
- contribute to better health
with a distinct focus and scope of practice; it requires a special knowledge base.
Its primary emphasis is on populations that live in the community, as opposed
to those that are institutionalized.
Was an early model for PHN...
Started the Henry
Street Settlement in late 1800s and took care of the sick in their homes but
also looked at the overall population of low-income people in the community
from which their home care patients came from
Primary goal of public health...
- the prevention of disease and disability-is achieved by ensuring that conditions
- exist in which people can remain healthy
the problems are defined and solutions are implemented for or with a
defined population or subpopulation as opposed to diagnoses, interventions, and
treatment carried out at the individual level.
Population focused practice
A PHN engaged in population focused practice would ask the following:
- What is the prevalence rate of HTN among various age, race, and gender
- What subpop have the highest rates of untreated HTN?
- What programs could reduce the problem of untreated HTN?
How to assess –questions to
- What are the major health problems in this community?
- Which population groups are at highest risk?
- How are risks distributed geographically?
- What services are available?
- What services need to be provided but are unavailable?
- What is the level of quality of the available and needed services?
- What do citizens think their most pressing health needs are?
- Are the most pressing health needs considered to be the same by both providers and citizens?
- What is the history of agency collaboration and cooperation in this community?
core function of public health and one of the core intervention strategies used
by PHN specialists. It relies heavily on planning and begins with the
identified needs and priorities set by the people involved
focuses on the responsibility of public health agencies to be sure that activities are appropriately carried out to meet public health goals and plans.
a “with the people,” not a “to the people” or “for the people,” approach to planning.
Levels of prevention
- Primary Prevention
- The PHN develops a
- health education program for a population of school age children that teaches
- them about the effects of smoking on health
- Secondary Prevention
- The PHN provides
- an influenza vaccination program in a community retirement village
- Tertiary Prevention
- The PHN provides a
- diabetes clinic for a defined population of adults in a low income housing unit
- of the community
1st US hospital was founded in 1751 in Philadelphia, PN.
(1st proposal for modern approach to public health organization)- Report by the
Mass. Sanitary Commission published in 1850 which called for major improvements
in state government action for public health
PH during Colonial Era
- At first, public health was a
- family/friend system of care, but this system became insufficient in early
- Established systems of care for the sick,
- poor, aged, mentally ill, and dependent were based on the Elizabethan Poor
- 1751: First hospital founded in America,
- the Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia
- 1850: Shattuck Report – first effort to
- describe a modern approach to public health
- Florence Nightingale (1894-1946): Organized
- hospital nursing practice and nursing education in hospitals to replace
- lay nurses with trained nurses
- William Rathbone: Founded first district
- nursing association in Liverpool, England
- 1870: First nursing schools based on the
- Nightingale model opened in the U.S.
- 1885: First visiting nurse associations
- established in U.S.