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What is logic?
The study of argument forms.
What is an argument?
A set of statements in which premises are offered as proof for a conclusion.
What are the two kinds of arguments?
What is a deductive argument?
An argument in which it is intended that IF the premises are true, then the conclusion MUST be true.
A simple deductive argument containing two premises and one conclusion.
What is an inductive argument?
One in which it is intended that IF the premises are true, then the conclusion is PROBABLY true.
What is the criterion for a good deductive argument?
What is the criterion for a good inductive argument?
Quick Test for Validity
If it is possible for a conclusion to be false while the premises are true, the argument is invalid.
Positive test for validity.
If we can show that a conclusion can be derived from the premises by use of valid rules of inference, then the argument is valid.
Error in reasoning due to fauulty language use, faulty presuppositions, or problems of relevance.
A cogent argument is...
a strong one whose pivotal premises are all true.
An uncogent argument is...
Either weak or has at least one false pivotal premises.
Princple of Charity
Demands that we interpret an argument in its strongest form.
An argument with missing premises.
A condition that must be present for some event to occur or some definition to apply.
Guarantee that something will happen.
What is philosophy?
- A conversation that hs gone on for over 2,000 years that has involved anyone who wonders about the world.
- An inquiry, a search for truth.
Correspondence Theory of Truth
A proposition is true if and only if the statement corresponds to some actual state of affairs. The statement is false if it does not correspend to an actual state of affairs.
Go to the best expert to determine how they discovered facts.
Via Negativa- What Philosophy is NOT
It's not a study of facts, or explanations of facts. Not interested in methodology for evaluating facts or theories.
Definition of Philosophy: Arthur Donte, Thomas Nagle.
Philosophy is an inquiry into what constitutes the intelligibility of the world.
the sum of all facts or possibilities
Setting of Fahrenheit 451
Future, past 1990. Published in 1953. Large city in the United States.
- Man vs. Himself
- Man vs. Man
- Man vs. Nature
- 1. Meeting Montag
- 2. Meeting Clarisse
- 3. Mildred OD's
- 4. Clarisse disappears
- 5. Old lady incident/ Montag steals a book
- 6. The old lady dies