Epidemiology Chapter 1
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A type of epidemiology that examines causal hyptheses regarding the association between exposures and health conditions. The field of analytic epidemiology prpposes and evaluates causal models for etiologic associations and studies them empirically.
Epidemiologic studies that are concerned with characterizing the amount and distribution of health and disease within a population.
A factor or event that is capable of bringing about a change in the health status of a population.
The occurrence of diseases and other health outcomes varies in populations, with some subgroups of the populations more frequently affected than others.
Occurrence of a disease clearly in excess of normal expectancy.
A shift in the pattern of morbidity and mortality from causes related primarily to infections and communicable diseases to causes associated with chronic, degenerative diseases.
Concerned with the distribution and determinants of health and disease, morbidity, injuries, disability, and mortality in populations. Epidemiologic studies are applied to the control of health problems in populations.
Contact with a disease-causing factor; the amount of the factor that impinges upon a group or individual.
An English anestheisiologist who innovated epidemiologic methods to identify the source of a cholera ourbreak.
occurrence of an illness or illnesses in a population
Occurrance of death ina population.
A type of research design in which the experimenter does not control the manipulation of a study factor. The manipulation of the study factor occurs as a result of natural phenomenon or policies that impact health, an example being laws that control smoking in public places.
A science that capitalizes on naturally occurring situations in order to study the occurrence of disease.
A result that may arise from an exposure.
An epidemic that spans a wide geographic area.
All the inhabitants of a given country or area considered together.
Primary Prevention of Disease
Prevention of disease before it occurs.
Secondary Prevention of Disease
Activities that limit the progression of disease.
Tertiary Prevention of Disease
Restoring optimal functioning for a patient.
The probablity that an event will occur; that an individul will become ill or die within a stated period of time or by a certain age.
Methodology to provide quantitative measurements of risks to health.
An exposure that is associated with a disease, morbidity, mortality, or adverse health outcome.
5 Uses of Epidemiology
- Community Health
- Health Services
- Risk assessment
- Disease Causality
Study of the history and health of populations
Community health use
Diagnose the health of the community
Health Services Use
Study the working of health services
Risk Assessment Use
Estimate individuals risks of disease, accident, or defect.
Disease Causality Use
Search for the causes of health and disease.
- Greek authority departed from supersititous reasons for disease outbreaks
- Wrote: On Airs, Waters, and Places
- Suggested disease might be associated with environmental factors
- Claimed up to 1/3 of the population of Europe
- Caused by Y. pestis infection from flea bites
- Swollen lymph nodes, fever, necrosis of skin
- One of the founders of toxicology
- Dose-response relationship
- Notion of target organ specificity of chemicals
- Published "Natural and Political Observations Mentioned in a Following Index" and "Made Upon the Bills of Mortality"
- First to employ quanitative methods
- Knows as the Columbus of Statistics
- Founder of the field of occupational medicine
- Authored: "De Morbis Artficum Diatriba"- Disease of Workers
- First person to describe environmental cause of cancer
- Observed that chimney sweeps had high incidence of scrotal cancer
Developed a method for smallpox vaccination in 1796
Believed cholera was transmitted by contaminated water and demonstrated this association
- Developed a more sophisticated system for codifying medical conditions
- Examined a possible link between mortality rates and population density
Demonstrated the association between a microorganism and disease
- First chief epidemiologist for the CDC
- Established EIS
Refers to norms for conudct that distinguist between acceptable and unacceptable behavior
- Syphilis investigation from 1932-1972
- Purpose: To study the natural history of syphilis in hopes of justifying treatment programs for blacks
- 600 African American men participated
- Despite discover of penicillin, they were never offered treatment
- American College of Epidemiology
- Developed ethics guidelines
Top 4 Countries for Obesity
- 1. Mexico
- 2. US
- 3. New Zealand
- 4. UK
Factors that could cause early onset of puberty
- 1. Obesity
- 2. Hormones in food
- 3. Chemicals in food packaging
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