Micro lec 3

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Micro lec 3
2011-01-27 03:44:23

exam 1
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  1. virus is made up of?
    genome and capsid
  2. genome have
  3. smaller protein units that make up the capsid
  4. nucleocapsid
    the genome and the capsid
  5. addition items of a virus.
    envelope and spikes
  6. envelope is
    an enclosing structure similar to membrane that encloses a host cell
  7. at which stage is the enveloped acquired?
    the last stage of replication
  8. spikes are?
    projections from envelope to help make contact with the host's cell
  9. virus is ...
    a core of nucleic acid, have protein covering, some with envelope, no chemistry, takes up no nutrients, no waste, no metabolism, BUT replicates
  10. what are some viral shapes?
    • helical viruses
    • -icosahedral viruses
    • -complex viruses
  11. helical viruses are...
    • tightly wound coil
    • ex. rabies virus, measles virus
  12. icosahedron ...
    • polyhedron with 20 triangular faces
    • ex. herpes virus, parvovirus, poliovirus
  13. complex virus ...
    eg. influenza virus, smallpox, bacteriophage
  14. components of a virus?
    capsid, genome, capsomeres, envelopes spikes
  15. stages of replication
    • 1. attachment
    • 2. penetration
    • 3. uncoating
    • 4. synthesis
    • 5. assembly
    • 6. release
  16. What stage is there the virus anchors on to receptor sites on the host?
    attachment stage
  17. At this stage, the cell eventually break out
    release stage
  18. at this stage, the capsid is removed
    uncoating stage
  19. at this stage, the genome passes thru the host membrane
    penetration stage
  20. at this stage, the affected makes the virus
  21. at this stage, everything's put together after the viral parts are complete
    assembly stage
  22. what is the virus doing to host?
    • -inhibit host's DNA/RNA/protein synthesis
    • -disrupt chromosomes
    • -high concentration of viral proteins inside host, which makes it toxic
  23. acute infections (viral infection)
    come on quick but last for short duration
  24. persistent infection (viral infection)
    can last many years
  25. chronic virus infection.
    • virus is almost always detectable
    • -shows clinical symptoms, but mild or absent for long periods
  26. latent infections (viral infections)
    virus stops reproducing and remains dormant for some time; during latent stage, symptoms, viruses, and antibodies are not detectable
  27. When viruses don't replicate, it's called ...
    lytic cycle, aka lysogenic cycle
  28. defense against virus.
    antibodies, drugs, vaccine (weakened virus so body can rid of it)
  29. vaccines
    • 1. inactivited: capsid's ok but no genome
    • 2. intenuated: "live" virus that's working erally slowly, extremely slow replication
    • 3. genetically engineered
  30. viroids are.
    simpler than virus, protein-like, and cause disease in plants
  31. Eukaryotes..
    • -contrast wit prokaryotes, have a membrane bound nucleus
    • -mitochondria (site for respiration)
    • -chloroplasts, in photrophic cells, larger than mitochondria
    • -other internal structures
    • -external structures: flagella, cilia
  32. Protozoa.
    unicellular, usually motile, lack cell wall, generally colorless, no chlorophyll, motility
  33. active feeding form of protozoa
  34. protective form or 'resting state' of protozoa
  35. 4 major groups of protozoa.
    • 1. amoebas
    • 2. flagellates
    • 3. ciliates
    • 4. sporozoa
  36. amoebas.
    • move by false feed "pseudopodia", heterotrophs (need organic carbon for growth); some have shell-like carings
    • ex: forminifera: calcium carbonate, radiolaria: silicon dioxide
  37. flagellate
    some phototrophic, most fundamental protists
  38. Ciliates
    diverse group of heterotrophic; move using hair-like cilia and some motile
  39. sporozoa.
    all obligated parasites