Psych Exam 1

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Psych Exam 1
2011-01-28 12:59:06
Psychology Exam

Psychology Making Connections/ Feist/ Rosenberg- Chapters 1-3
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  1. Psychology
    The scientific study of behevior and mental processes
  2. Behavior
    Outward or overt actions and reactions
  3. Mental processes
    internal, covert activity of our minds
  4. Psychology's Four Goals:
    • 1. Describe- What is happening?
    • 2. Explain- Why is it happening?
    • 3. Prediction- Will it happen again?
    • 4. Control- How can it be changed?
  5. Theory
    General explanation of a set of observations or facts
  6. Structuralism
    • Focused on structure or basic elements of the mind
    • * Died out in early 1900's
  7. Wilhelm Wundt
    • Psychology laboratory
    • Germany 1879
    • Developed technique of objective introspection- process of objectively examining and measuring one's thoughts and mental activities
  8. Edward Titchener
    Wundt's student: brought Structuralism to America
  9. Margaret Washburn
    Titchener's student; first woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology
  10. Functionalism
    • How the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play
    • * Proposed by William James
    • Influenced:
    • Educational Psychology
    • Evolutionary Psychology
    • Industrial/ organizational Psychology
  11. Gestault Psychology
    • 1. Started with Wertheimer who studied sensation and perception.
    • 2. "Good Figure" psychology
    • 3. Gestault ideas are now part of the study of cognitive psychology, a field focusing not only on perception but also on learning, memory, thought processes, and problem solving
  12. Cognitivism/ Cognitive Psychology
    "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts"
  13. Fredrick Bartlett
    Memory is not an objective & accurate representation of events, but rather a highly personal reconstruction based on one's own beliefs, ideas, and POV
  14. Psychoanalysis
    Sigmund Freud- The theory and therapy based on his work
  15. Sigmund Freud
    • Patients suffered from nervous disorders with no found physical cause
    • Proposed that there is an unconscious (unaware) mind into which we push, or repress, all of our threatening urges and desires
    • Believed that these repressed urges, in trying to surface, created the nervous disorders
    • Stressed the importance of early childhood
  16. Behaviorism
    • The science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only
    • Must be directly seen and measured
    • Proposed by John Watson
  17. John B Watson
    • Proposed behavioralism
    • Based on Ivan Pavlov's work that demonstrated that a reflex could be conditioned (learned).."Pavlov's Dogs"
    • Watson believed phobias were learned...
    • Case: "little Albert" taught to fear white rat
  18. Psychodynamic perspective
    • Modern version of psychoanalysis
    • More focused on the development of a sense of self and teh discovery of other motivations behind a person's behavior than sexual motivations
  19. Behavioral Perspective
    • B.F. Skinner studied operant conditioning of voluntary behavior
    • Behaviorism became a major force in the 20th century
    • Skinner introduced the concept of reinforcement to behaviorism
  20. Humanistic Perspective
    • Owes far more to the early roots of psychology in the field of philosophy
    • Humanists held the view that people have free will, the freedom to choose their own destiny
  21. Humanistic Perspective
    Early Founders
    • Abraham Maslow
    • Carl Rogers
    • Emphasized the human potential, the ability of each person to become the best person he or she could be...
  22. Self Actualization
    Achieving one's full potential or actual self
  23. Cognitive Perspective
    Focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning
  24. Sociocultural perspective
    Focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture
  25. Biophychological Perspective
    Attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system
  26. Evolutionary Perspective
    • Focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share
    • Looks at the way the mind works and why it works as it does
    • Behavior is seen as having an adaptive or survival value
  27. Psychiatrist
    Medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
  28. Psychoanalyst
    Either a psychiatrist or psychologist who has special training in the theories of Sigmund Freud and his method of psychoanalysis
  29. Psychiatric Social Worker
    A social worker with some training in therapy methods who focuses on the environmental conditions that can have an impact on mental disorders, such as poverty, overcrowding, stress, and drug abuse
  30. Psychologist
    • A professional with an academic degree and specialized training in one or more areas of psychology
    • Can do counseling, teaching, and research any may specialize in any of the areas within psychology
    • Specializations: Clinical, counseling, developmental, social, personality, industrial/ organizational, among others
  31. Scientific Method
    A system of gathering data so that the bias and error in mearsurement are reduced
  32. Steps in Scientific Method
    • O- Observation- perceive the question
    • P- Prediction- form a hypothesis/ tentative explanation
    • T- Test- test the hypothesis
    • I- Interpretation- Draw conclusions
    • C- Communication- report results so that others can try to replicate or repeat the study for same results to demonstrate reliability of the results
  33. Naturalistic Observation
    • Watching animals or humans behave in their normal environment
    • Advantage: realistic picture of behavior
    • Disadvantages:
    • Observer Effect: tendency to behave differently from norm when they know they are being ovserved
    • Observer Bias: tendency of observers to see what they expect to see
  34. Case Study
    • Study of one individual in great detail
    • Advantage: tremendous amount of detail
    • Disadvantage: cannot apply to others
    • Famous case study: Phineas Gage
  35. Variable
    • Anything that can change or vary
    • Measures of two variables go into a mathematical formula and produces a correlation coefficient (r), which represents two things:
    • 1. Direction of the relationship
    • 2. Strength of the relationship