Biology Laboratory

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Biology Laboratory
2010-02-07 04:02:27
Lab topic 24 Vertebrate Anatomy 3

Lab topic 24 about the excretory and reproductive systems for cap u students.
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  1. The Excretory System
    • Osmoregulation: the control of tissue water balance, and the elimination of excess salts and urea.
    • Blood enters the kidney through the renal artery and exits through the renal vein.
    • Kidney is made up of microscopic tubules, blood vessels, and nephrons.
    • Nephron consists of Bowman's capsule, a proximal convulted tubule, the loop of Henle, a distal convulted tubule and a collecting duct.
    • Glomerulus: a ball of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's capsule, where blood is filtered as water and waste into the Bowman's capsule.
    • The hypertonic urine passes into the collecting ducts, which empty into the renal pelvis, an expanded portion of the ureter into the kidney.
    • In the fetal pig the ureter narrows into the small allantoic stalk in umbilical cord.
    • In male pigs the urethra leads into the penis.
    • In female pigs the urethra joins the vagina forming the vaginal vestibule.
  2. The Male Reproductive System
    • Consisting of gonads, ducts and glands.
    • Testes (male gonads) produce sperm and secrete testosteron and other male sex hormones.
    • Sperm pass from testes into epididymis where they mature and stored.
    • When ejaculation, sperm passes from the epididymis through the ductus deferens (vas deferens) to the urethra which leads to penis.
    • Semen are secretions added from seminal vesicles, prostate gland and bulbourethal glands, that contains sperm, fructose, amino acids, mucus, and other substances that produce a favorable environment for sperm survival and mortility.
    • Preputial Orifice: urogenital opening.
  3. Pathway of sperm
    • Testis: sperm and testosterone production.
    • Epididymis: storage and maturation of sperm.
    • Vas (ductus) deferens: transport of sperm and addition of seminal fluid.
    • Urethra: transport of sperm (semen) and urine.
    • Penis: transport of semen to female reproductive system.
  4. The Female Reproductive System
    • Consists of ovaries, short uterine tubes, the uterus, the vagina and vagina vestibule (in the pig fetus).
    • Ovary: produces egg and sex hormones.
    • Oviduct: conducts egg to uterine horn.
    • Uterine: house developing young.
    • Vagina: organ of copulation and birth canal.