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  1. Physical and Chemical Properties
    • Physical: chemical bonds are not broken can be observed
    • Chemical: can only be observed when a substance is changed into another substance
  2. Intensive and Extensive Properties
    • Intensive: independent of the amount of the substance that is present. Ex: density, boiling pt, etc.
    • Extensive: depend upon the amount of the substance is present. Ex: mass, volume, energy, etc
  3. Physical and Chemical Changes
    • Physical: changes in matter that do ot change the compostition of a substance Ex: temp, volume, changes in states
    • Chemical: result in new substances E: combustion, oxidation, decomposition
  4. Distillation
    • D: uses differencs in the boiling points of substances to spearate a homogeneous mixture into its components
    • F: substances are separated from liquids and solutions
    • C: separates substances on the basis of differences in solubility in a solvent
  5. SI Units of mass, length, time, temp., & amount of a substance
    • meters
    • s2
    • K
    • mole
  6. Fahrenheit to Celsius
    Celsius to Fahrenheit
    Celsius to Kelvin
    • 9/5(C)+32
    • 5/9(F-32)
    • C+ 273.15
  7. Accuracy and Precision
    • Accuracy: proximity of a measurement to the true value of a quantity
    • Precision: proximity of several measurements to each other
  8. Protons were discovered by...
    Neutrons were discovered by ...
    • Rutherford
    • james Chadwick
  9. On a periodic table, rows are called _____ and columns are callled ___.
    • periods
    • groups
  10. Periodic Table:
    1A; 2A; 6A; 7A; 8A
    • alkali metals
    • alkali earth metals
    • chalcogens
    • halogens
    • noble gases
  11. Name the seven diatomic molecules
    • Hydrogen
    • Nitrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Flourine
    • Chlorine
    • Bromine
    • Iodine
  12. Three different reactions
    • Combination
    • Decomposition
    • Combustion
  13. Theoretical and Actual Yield
    • T: calculate
    • A: what actually comes out
  14. Electrolyte and Nonelectrolyte
    • E: dissociates into ions when dissolved in water
    • N: dissolves in water but do not dissociates into ions
  15. Seven strong Acids & formulas...the are also...?
    • Hydrochloric Acid: HCl
    • Hydrobromic Acid: HBr
    • Hydroiodic Acid: HI
    • Chloric Acid: HClO2
    • Perchloric: HClO4
    • Nitric Acid: HNO3
    • Sulfuric: H2SO4
  16. Strong Bases
    • Group 1A
    • Group 2A
  17. Strong Electrolytes are..
    • strong acids
    • strong bases
    • soluble ionic salts
  18. Soluble Ionic Compounds & Insoluble Compounds and important exceptions
  19. Ionic Equation stuff
    all strongelectrolytes, atrog bases, ad soluble ionic salty are siddociated into their ions when determinity the net ionic equation
  20. Neutralization Reactions
    solutions of an acid and a base are combined an the products are asalt an water
  21. When a strong acid reacts with a strong base, what is the net ionic equation
    H and OH produces H2O
  22. when a carbonate or bicarbonate or sulfite reacts with an acid, what are the products?
    salt, carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide, and water
  23. oxidation and reduction
    • leo
    • the lion says
    • ger
  24. Sign conventions for q, w, and delta E.
    • q is positive when system gains heat
    • q is negative when system loses heat
    • w is positive when work done on system
    • w is negative when work done by system
    • delta E positive when net gain of energy by system
    • delta E negative when net loss of energy by system
  25. Endothermic and Exothermic
    • heat absorbed by the system from the surroundings
    • heat released by the system into the surroundings
  26. which are state functions:
    internal energy, heat, work
  27. when enthalpy is positive..
    when enthalpy is negative..
    • endothermic
    • exothermic
  28. Planck's constant, h
    6.626 x 10-34 J-s
  29. Speed of light, c
    3.00 x 108
  30. Rydberg constant, RH
    2.18 x 10-18 J
  31. Quantum numbers:
    values of n
    values of l
    values of ml
    values of ms
    • n > or = 1
    • l are integer ranging for 0 to n-1
    • ml are integers ranging from -l to l
    • ms have only two values: +1/2 & -1/2
  32. Cations are ____ than their parent atoms.
    Anions are ____ than their parent atoms.
    • smaller
    • larger
  33. Sizes of Ions increase as....
    • you go down a column
    • you go from right to left on a period
  34. isoelectronic series
    ions have the same number of electrons
  35. ionization energy
    amount of energy required to remove an electron form the ground state of a gaseous atom or ion
  36. ionization energy increases as..
    • you go up a column
    • and left to right across a period
  37. electron affinity
    • opposite of ionization
    • energy change accompanying the addition of an electron to a gaseous atom
  38. in general electron affinity becomes more exothermic as ....
    you go from left to right across a row/perid
  39. metallic character increases as..
    you go from left to right across a row/period and down a column
  40. characteristics of metals
    • ductile and malleable
    • shiny...luster
    • good conductors of electricity
    • tend to form cations in aq solutions
    • most metal oxides are ionic solids that are basic
  41. characteristics of nonmetals
    • do not have luster; various colors
    • solids are usually brittle, some hard some soft
    • poor conductors of electricity
    • nonmetal oxides are molecular substances that form acidic solutions
    • tend to form anion or oxyanions in aq solutions
  42. three chemical bonds
    describe each
    • ionic (electrostatic attractions b/w ions)
    • covalent (sharing of electrons)
    • metalllic (metal atoms bonded to several other atoms)
  43. lattice energy
    energy required to completely separtae a mole of a solid ionic compound into its gaseous ions
  44. bond dipole
    when two atoms share elecrons unequally
  45. electronegativity
    th ability of atoms in a molecule to attract electons to themselves
  46. electronegativity increases as....
    • you go from left to right across a row
    • up a column
  47. sigma and pi bonds
    • sigma: cylindrical symmetry ofelectron density about the internuclear axis
    • pi: electron density above and below the internuclear axis

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2011-01-27 19:25:02

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