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the basic cell that makes up the nervous system and which receives and sends messages with that system.
branch-like structures that receive messages from other neurons.
the cell body of the neuron, responsible for maintaining the life of the cell.
long tube-like structure that carries the neural message to other cells.
branches at the end of the axon
rounded areas on the end of axon terminals
sack-like structures found inside the synaptic knob containing chemicals
chemical found in the synaptic vesicles which, when released, has an effect on the next cell.
microscopic fluid like space between the rounded areas on the end of the axon terminals of one cell and the dendrites or surface of the next cell.
"keys fitting locks"
holes in the surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands, which are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters.
the release of the neural impulse consisting of a reversal of the electrical charge within the axon
the state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse
neurotransmitter that causes the receiving cell to fire.
neurotransmitter that causes the receiving cell to stop firing.
mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell, increasing or decreasing the activity of that cell.
block or reduce a cell’s response to the action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
all nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord.
The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) is divided into what two systems?
Somatic Nervous System and the Autonomic Nervous System.
Somatic Nervous System
division of the PNS consisting of nerves that carry information from the senses to the CNS and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body
Autonomic Nervous System
division of the PNS consisting of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands sensory pathway nerves coming from the sensory organs to the CNS consisting of sensory neurons.
The Autonomic Nervous System has two divisions, what are they called?
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic divisions.
part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal.
(rest & digest)
part of the ANS that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible for the day-to-day functioning of the organs and glands.
sensory neurons; a neuron that carries information from the senses to the central nervous system.
motor neurons; a neuron that carries messages from the central nervous system to the muscles of your body.
“get your hand off!”
nerves coming from the sensory organs to the CNS consisting of sensory neurons
nerves coming from the CNS to the voluntary muscles, consisting of motor neurons.
machine designed to record the brain wave patterns produced by electrical activity of the surface of the brain.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
brain imaging method using radio-waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain.
Computed Tomography (CT scans)
brain-imagine methof using computer controlled X-Rays of the brain.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
brain-imaging method in which a radioactive sugar is injected into the subject and a computer comples a color-coded image of the activity of the brain with lighter colors indicating more activities
- means "bridge"
- the larger swelling above the medulla that connects the top of the brain to the bottom and that plays a part in sleep, dreaming, left-right body coordination, and arousal.
part of the lower brain located behind the pons that controls and coordinates involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement.
the first large swelling at the top of the spinal cord, forming the lowest part of the brain, which is responsible for life-sustaining functions such as breathing, swallowing, and heart rate.
Reticular formation (RF)
an area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and the pons and slightly beyond that is responsible for selective attention.
outermost covering of the brain consisting of densely packed neurons, responsible for higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory input.
the upper part of the brain consisting of the two hemispheres and the structures that connect them.
a group of several brain structures located under the cortex and involved in learning, emotion, memory and motivation.
"Relay Center" gets information from senses.
part of the limbic system located in the center of the brain, this structure relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper areas of the cortex and processes some sensory information before sending it to its proper area.
small structure in the brain located below the thalamus and directly above the pituitary gland, responsible for motivational behavior such as sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex.
curved structure located within each temporal lobe, responsible for the formation of long-term memories and the storage of memory for location of objects.
brain structure located near the hippocampus, responsible for fear responses and memory of fear.
"Old Perfume Factory"
section of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere containing the visual centers of the brain.
areas of the cortex located just behind the temples containing the neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech.
located right above the ear
areas of the cortex located in the front and top of the brain, responsible for higher mental processes and decision making as well as the production of fluent speech.
thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres.
the two sections of the cortex on the left and right sides of the brain.
areas of neurons running down the front of the parietal lobes responsible for processing information from the skin and internal body receptors for touch, temperature, body position, and possibly taste.
"what can I feel?"
section of the frontal lobe located at the back, responsible for sending motor commands to the muscles of the somatic nervous system.
areas within each lobe of the cortex responsible for the coordination and interpretation of information, as well as higher mental processing.
Split Brain Research (Information)
the study of patients with severed corpus callosum
Involves sending messages to only one side of the brain
demonstrates right and left brain socialization
Split Brain Research (Results)
: Seems to control language, writing, logical thought, analysis, and mathematical ideas; Processes information sequentially; Can speak
- Right Brain: Controls emotional expression, spatial perception, recognition of faces, patterns, melodies, and emotions;
- Processes information globally; cannot speak
endocrine glands located on top of each kidney that secrete over 30 different hormones to deal with stress, regulate salt intake, and provide a secondary source of sex hormones affecting the sexual changes that occur during adolescence.
endocrine gland located near the base of the cerebrum that secretes melatonin.
found in the neck that regulates metabolism
controls the level of sugar in the blood
the sex glands that secrete hormones that regulate sexual development and behavior as well as reproduction.
What are the gonads in females and males called?
Ovaries and testes.
gland located in the brain that secretes human growth hormone and influences all other hormone-secreting glands (also known as the master gland)
refers to the fact that a neuron either fires completely or does not fire at all.
condition resulting from damage to Broca’s area (usually in the left frontal lobe), causing the affected person to be unable to speak fluently, to mispronounce words, and to speak haltingly.
insertion of a thin, insulated wire into the brain through which an electrical current is sent that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire.
glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream
gray fatty cells that: provide support for the neurons to grow on and around, deliver nutrients to neurons, produce myelin to coat axons, and clean up waste products and dead neurons
chemicals released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands.
a neuron found in the center of the spinal cord that receives information from the sensory neurons and sends commands to the muscles through the motor neurons.
neurons that fire when an animal or person performs an action and also when an animal or person observes that same action being performed by another.
fatty substance produced by certain glial cells that coat the axons of neurons to insulate, protect, and speed up the neural impulse.
bundles of axons in the body that travel together through the body.
an extensive network of specialized cells that carry information to and from all parts of the body.
the ability to constantly change both the structure and function of cell incolved in trauma.
deals with the structure and function of neurons, nerves, and nervous tissue
the connection of the afferent neurons to the interneurons to the efferent neurons, resulting in a reflex action.
process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles
condition produced by damage to the association areas of the right hemisphere resulting in an inability to recognize objects or body parts in the left visual field.
a long bundle of neurons that carries messages to and from the body to the brain that is responsible for very fast, lifesaving reflexes.
special cells found in all tissues of the body that are capable of manufacturing other cell types when those cells need to be replaced due to damage or wear and tear.
condition resulting from damage to Wernicke’s area (usually in left temporal lobe), causing the affected person to be unable to understand or produce meaningful language.
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
outward of overt actions and reactions
focused on structure or basic elements of the mind.
Developed the technique of objective introspection –process of objectively examining and measuring one’s thoughts and mental activities.
how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play
Influenced the modern fields of educational psychology, evolutionary psychology, industrial/organizational psychology.
focus on the unconscious and early development.
modern version of psychoanalysis.
More focused on the development of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person’s behavior than sexual motivations.
focus on operant conditions, punishment, and reinforcement.
Pavlov and Watson: behaviors and feelings are involuntary
- Skinner: behaviors are voluntary
- Ex: feelings about classes; rewards/allowance, “hooray” on games
held the view that people have free will, the freedom to choose their own destiny.
- Emphasized the human potential, the ability of each person to become the best person he or she could be.
- Self-actualization: achieving one’s full potential or actual self.
focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, learning, thinking, planning.
focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture.
- “social”= people
- “cultural” = way of life, traditions, values, Affects our thoughts about others and perspectives
attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body.
Such as: genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system.
o focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share.
- Looks at the way the mind works and
- why it works as it does
- Behavior is seen as having an adaptive or survival value.
- Why we became this way
medical doctor (MD) who has specialized in diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders.
Can write out prescriptions.
either a psychiatrist or a psychologist who has special training in the theories of Sigmund Freud and his method of psychoanalysis.
Psychiatric social worker
a social worker with some training in therapy methods who focuses on the environmental conditions that can have an impact on mental disorders, such as poverty, overcrowding, stress, and drug abuse.
a professional with an academic degree and specialized training in one or more areas of psychology.
Can do counseling, teaching, and research and may specialize in an one of a large number of areas in psychology. ·
Ares of specialization: clinical, counseling, developmental, social, and personality…
system of gathering data so that bias and error in measurement are reduced.
What does the scientific model entail?
- 1. Perceive the question
- 2. Form a hypothesis
- 3. Test the hypothesis
- 4. Draw conclusions
- Agree/disagree with the hypothesis
- Maybe the hypothesis wasn’t tested correctly
- 5. Report, Revise, Replicate
the entire group of people or animals in which the researcher is interested.
randomly selected sample of subjects from a larger population of subjects.
a measure of the relationship between two or more variables.
variables are related in the same direction.
- As one increases, the other decreases; as one decreases, the other increases.
The more you study à the better your grades ; The less you study à the lower your grades
variables are related in the opposite direction
- As one increases, the other decreases
Ex: The older you are à the less sleep you get ; The younger you are à the more sleep you get
How is a correlation interpreted?
by looking at the direction (positive or negative) or the strength (number) of the relationship.
What constitutes a strong correlation relationship between variables?
the closer to 1.00 or -1.00 the relationship is
What is the range for no correlation?
What is a perfect correlation?
+1.00 or -1.00
a deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result, allowing the determination of cause-and-effect relationships.
variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter.
The experimenter has the freedom
variable in an experiment that represent the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment.
It depends on the independent variable.
subjects in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may receive a placebo treatment.
Controls for confounding variables
The comparison group
subjects in an experimental group who are subjected to the independent variable
process of assigning subjects to the experimental or control groups randomly, so that each subject has an equal chance of being in either group.
- Controls for confounding (extraneous, interfering) variables
- Ex: gender
subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group.
Reduces placebo effect
Gets rid of the participant effect
neither the experimenter nor the subjects know if the subjects are in the experimental or control group.
Reduces the placebo effect and experimenter effect
making reasoned judgments about claims.
What are the 4 basic criteria of critical thinking?
- 1. Truths or Best knowledge at the moment
- 2. Evidence
- 3. Authorities
- 4. Open Minds
study of one individual in great detail
study of the physical changes in the brain and nervous system during thinking
a number derived from the formula for measuring a correlation and indicating the strength and direction of a correlation; a number that represents the strength and direction of a relationship existing between two variables.
tendency of the experimenter’s expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study
early perspective in psychology focusing on perception and sensation, particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures.
watching animals or humans behave in their normal environment
the process of examining and measuring one’s own thoughts and mental activities.
tendency of observers to see what they expect to see.
tendency of people or animals to behave differently from normal when they know they are being observed.
a naturalistic observation in which the observer becomes a participant in the group being observed.
the phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior.
systems of explaining human behavior that are not based on or consistent with scientific evidence.
Freud’s term for both the theory of personality and the therapy based on it.