medical microbiology

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tigray
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62467
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medical microbiology
Updated:
2011-01-27 21:04:37
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introductory facts microbiology
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things i need to know for my first exam....
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  1. Germ theory of disease
    microoganisms that can invade other organidms and cause a disease
  2. to be a disease:
    • 1.microbe must be more abundant in all infected organisms than in healthy organisms
    • 2.has to be able to be isolated and grown
    • 3.must cause disease when introduces into a healthy organism
    • 4.identical microbe must be re-isolated from innoculant.

    (some people can be carriers and not get disease)
  3. Reduction
    gains an electron (removal of O)
  4. oxidation
    lose of an electon (addition of O)
  5. pH
    -log [H+]
  6. carbohydrates
    (CH2O)x

    -simple sugars
  7. lipids
    • hydrocarbon chains
    • -phospholipds (2 fatty acids and glycerol +HPO4-
    • -steroids (4 ring structure differing in functional groups)
  8. proteins
    • amino acids
    • (amine-C-carboxylic acid)
    • R
  9. nucleotides
    • nucleic acids
    • phosphate, sugar, nitrogenous base
  10. polypeptide
    protein not in tertiary structure
  11. peptide
    short strand of proteins
  12. two ring
    adenine and guarnine
  13. one ring
    thymine, uracil, adenine
  14. dehydration synthesis
    binds together monomers
  15. hydrolysis
    breaks down monomers
  16. coccus (cocci)
    • spherical
    • divide in one or more planes or randomly
  17. coccobacillus
    elongated
  18. bacillus (bacilli)
    • rod
    • divide in one plane
  19. vibrio
    comma-shaped
  20. spirillum (spirilla)
    wavy-rigid
  21. spriochete (spirochetes)
    wavy -flexible (corkscrew)
  22. plemorphic
    many shapes
  23. division in one plane
    • produces pared
    • Diplo-
  24. in chains
    strepto-
  25. division in two planes
    tetrad
  26. random division
    • producing clusters
    • Staphylo
  27. bacilli divide in one plane and stay togethe
    Palisade
  28. staying connected...
    curving
    Strepto
  29. prokaryotes divide by...
    • Binary fission
    • -new cell wall material grows and the cell pinches in half
  30. (Gram+)
    Teichoic Acid
    • attachment site for bateriophages and serves as a passgeway into and out of the cell.
    • (adds rigidity)
  31. (Gram-)
    Lipoprotein molecules
    attach the outermembrane to the peptidoglycan layer
  32. (gram-)
    Porins
    form channels through the outer membrane
  33. (gram-)
    lipopolysaccharides
    • found in the outermembrane
    • also called endotoxin
    • not released until cell walls are broken down
    • which is why they're a serious medical problem (get worse)
  34. (gram-)
    periplasmic space
    • gap between cell membrane and cell wall
    • very active area of the cell metabolism
    • contains digestive enzymes and transports proteins that destroy potentialy harmful substances
  35. Gram+ cells aging
    cause the cel wall to be leaky so the dye complec escapes
  36. Acid fact bacteria
    • approximately 60% lipid
    • very little peptidoglycon
    • grow slowly since lipids impede entrance of nutrients
    • stains gram +
  37. Penincilllin
    • blocks peptidoglycon synthesis
    • cell walls become incomplete
    • doesn't work for gram- as well. takes to long to reach peptidoglycan from outer membrane
  38. lysozymes
    • digest peptidoglycan
    • helps prevent bacteria from entering the body
  39. cell membrane
    • phospholipid bilayer
    • (internal to cell wall - Peptidoglycan)
  40. Bacterial cells contain
    • ribosomes (RNA and protein) polyribosomes(chains
    • nucleoid (DNA)
    • Variety of vacuoles
    • -within a cytoplasm
  41. inclusions
    • included in the cytoplasm
    • densly compacted matter doesn't dissolve
  42. Endospores
    • created from some vegetative cells. made when living conditions worsen. can live forever hard to destroy.
    • when enviroment and nutrients are restored they germinate
  43. vegetative cells
    • cells that metabolize
    • ---endospores are resting stage
  44. Pili
    hollow projections used to attach bacteria to surfaces
  45. Glycocalyx
    • subunits found externlly to cell wall.
    • can be a capsule or slime layer
  46. capsule
    prevents host defence mechanism like phagocytosis from destroying the bacteria
  47. slime layer
    protects agains drying, traps nutrients, and sometimes bind cells together (helps it to stay close to nutrients)
  48. eukaryotes
    have a nucleous and membrane bound organelles
  49. transcript
    dna-rna
  50. translation
    rna-amino acids (polypeptides)
  51. DNA plasmids
    • small circular
    • transferable to another bacterium
    • can integrate in and out of chromosomes
  52. mycoplasma
    • doesn't have a cell wall
    • pleomophic
    • strong cell membrane proteins
    • -prevents water from rushing in
  53. diffusion
    • movement of molecules through the phopholipid bilayer like oxygen and carbon dioxide from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
    • passive
  54. facilitated
    • polar and uncharged molecules go through proteins
    • passive
  55. osmosis
    • movement of water molecules through aqupores
    • passive
  56. active transport
    • energy required
    • way cells increase concentration gradiant
    • low concentration to high concentration
  57. edocytosis
    molecules outside the cell are engulfed and bound in the cell membrane and brought in the cell
  58. exocytosis
    molecules inside the cell are bound with the cell membrane and exited through glands
  59. catabolism
    harvest energy stored in molecules
  60. anabolism
    use energy to make molecules
  61. enzymes
    • lowers activatin energy
    • active site on enxyme are where the substrate binds to
  62. metabolism
    all biochemical reactions that occur in the cell
  63. why metabolism
    cells use enegy, create atp, divide, translate and transcribe
  64. heat on enzymes
    heat adds energy which breaks the hydrogen bonds (protein)reshaping the protein so the substrate can no longer bind to the enzyme
  65. cooling down enzyme
    substrate and protein move slower so they won't combin as often until they won't combine at all.
  66. increase or decreas in pH of enzyme
    • charges and shape are required for a substrate to bind to an enzyme.
    • changing the pH changes the charge on the activation site repelling or attracting each other increasing or decreasing the size of the AS
  67. competitive inhibitor
    fits into the activation site but doesn't cause a reaction. just blocks the site

    • 3 enzymes
    • 1200 substrate
    • 12 comp.
    • ----still will happen
  68. non-competitive inhibitor
    binds to the surface of the enzyme and distorts the shape of the activation site

    • 3 enzymes
    • 1200 substrate
    • 12 non-comp
    • -----reaction won't happen

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