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Type A H1N1 infects what type of organisms?
What is an antigenic drift of type a virus
- a small change in the h or n protiens that can occur from year to year
- pop is partially immune but may be reaffected over time which is a periodic epidemic
What are the parts of all influenza viruses?
- virus contains RNA surrounded by a membrane
- m2 protien on a type only
- on the outside there is hemagglutinin and neuraminidase
What does hemagglutinin do?
allows the virus to bond to the host cell
What are the interferons?
- interferon alpha: type 1 and is made in all types of leukocytes
- interferon beta: type 1. fibroblast interferon. made in fibroblasts/epithelial cells
- interferon gamma: type 2. the immune interferon. made in certain activated t cells and nk cells
What interferon is most effective in motogenic stimulation of lymphocytes?
What is the function of interferon?
- induction of protiens in target cells
- increasing MHC I expression
- increased cytotoxic t cells
- activates nk cells
What are the side effects of interferon?
- muscle pain
- flu like symptoms
What are pulmonary complications of the flu?
- croup: a coughing virus in young kids (shower steam helps)
- primary influenza virus pneumonia
- secondary bacterial infection such as strep, staph, or bacterial influenza
What causes reyes syndrome?
- its a disease where the liver has fatty deposits
- there is brain swelling
- caused by being young, certian viral infections such as flu or chickenpox, and giving kids aspirin
Explain the flu vaccine
- an every year "best guess" docs make of the main antigenic types
- is currently against type a h1n1, type a h3n2, and type b
- vaccine grown in an egg
- bennefits healthy people not at risk of flu complications ages 5-49 who have strong immune systems
- should be administerd oct-nov
What are relenza and tamiflu?
- selective neuraminidase inhibitors
- stop the virus from leaving the cell
- relenzas indication is treatment which may be given before you get sick while tamiflus is treatment prophylaxis meaning after infection
- spectrum of both is types a and b
- administration of relenza is inhaled- 2 puffs a day for 5 days and tamiflus is oral, one tablet a day for 5 days
What are the economic costs of influenza illness?
- 10% are direct costs
- 90% indirect-lost productivity for employee absentism
- us total annual flu cost: 14.6 billion
What is type b influenza?
- usually less severe
- more stable
- generally an epidemic
What virus is hiv?
- transcribes rna to dna
What are some of the former names of AIDS?
- human t cell lymphotrophic virus (htlv)
- lymohodenopathy associated virus (lav)
- AIDS associated retrovirus (AARV)
HIV is the leading cause of...
death in the us of men ages 25-44
What are the characteristics of the HIV virus?
- icosahedral (2o sided)
- enveloped virus of the lentivuris subfamily of retroviruses
- has 2 viral rna strands in the core surrounded by p24 surrounded by p17 matrix sourounded by lipid membrane with gp 41 and gp120 for attaching are embedded in membrane
When should antiretroviarl drugs be started?
- when you are infected with HIV
- HIV has no cure but the drugs goal is to prevent/delay opportunistic disease
What are the characteristics of antiretroviral drugs?
two types: neucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (fake neucleotides go into the viral dna so it cant be transcribed- AZT) and non-neucleoside reverse transciptase inhibitors (attaches itself to reverse transcriptase so it wont work-viramune)
What are bacterial infections associated with aids
tb and strep pneumonia
What are the fungal infections associated with aids
What are the viral infections associated with AIDS
- kaposi sarcoma
- oral hairy leukoplakia
- oral candidiasis
What is kaposi's sarcoma?
- a rarecancer of the blood vessels
- associated with hiv
- patients dont make enough healthy t cells to fight it off
- manifests as blush red
What are the complications of anitretroviral drugs?
- vary from patient to patient
- aids wasting syndrome- occurs in most patients with aids
- wieght loss of 10% of body weight
- chronic weakness or fever
- diarrhea of 30+ days
What stages of hiv are asymptomatic?
When is hiv first detectable in the blood?
When does hiv become more severe eventually leading to aids
What stage of hiv do you first see emergence of opportunistic infections and cancers?
stage 3- symptomatic stage
What are bacteria that require oxygen?
What are bacteria that require the absense of oxygen
What bacteria causes ulcers?
- helicobacter pylori
- stress can increase them
What is the bacteria that causes typhoid
salmonella typhi bacteria
What type of bacteria is typhoid?
facultative anaerobic bacteria- can live with or without oxygen
What type of bacteria is botulism?
obligate anaerobe- no oxygen
What types of botulism do humans contract?
a b e f
What are the two kingdoms of bacteria?
What are tapeworms in terms of sex organs
- mature in intestines
What worm causes elephantiasis?
What is the function of the scolex in the tapeworm?
- what it uses to attach itself the the intestine
- the head
- must come out in feces to be cured of tapeworm because proglottids can grow back
How does one contract trichinosis?
eating bad meat, usually pork, with hard cysts
How are schistosomes caught?
they leave snails and go in fresh water and penetrate the skin
What worm can penetrate skin through the food in wet soil?
Where do hookworms go in the body
penetrate the skin then move to the airways where they are swallowed and end up in the intestines
Where are the suckers and hooks on the tapeworm?
- hooks at the very top of scolex
- suckers are on the sides of the scolesx
What worm diseases are in the us
- ascaris (kids)
What is Mabendazole
- treatment against hookworm
- oral meds are 99% effective
What is vermox?
- pinworm med
- also recees pinworm
What is treated by a minor surgery and has no drug treatment?
loa loa or african eyeworm
What is used to treat trichinosis?
What is doxycycline?
cure for elephantiasis
What causes painful blistering sores
What is praziquantal?
drug used to treat schistosomiasis
What worm forms cysts in muscle tissue?
what worm is found in children in the us sometimes?
what worms are contracted by contaminated water?
What worms are in contaminated soil with eggs?
What are threee therapeutic uses of interferon
- antiviral: alpha- approved for hepatitis b and c
- macrophage activation: gamma: used for leprocy and toxoplasmosis
- multiple scleroisis: beta- used for this auto immune disease
How do viruses block interferon?
- block interferon binding
- inhibit functions of interferon induced protiens
- try to stop functions of natural killer cells
- inhibit production of MHC I and II
How does flu spread?
- person to person mostly
- inanimate objects
Signs and symptoms of flu?
- muscle pain
- sore throat
- cough with little to no sputum
How are bacteria classified?
- very fit- can survive where other organisms cant
- most ancient
- most numerous
- microscopic prokaryots
- groups based on cluster and shape
What are thermophillic bacteria?
bacteria that like a heated environment
How are bacteria usefull?
- producing and processing foods
- breaking down dead organic material
- making unripened cheese like cottage or ricotta
What are endotoxin and exotoxin bacteria
- endotoxin: does destroying- menengitis
- exotoxin: realeases disease causing toxins- botulism or diptheria
How is typhoid prevented?
- sanitation and hygene
- keep human urine/feces away from food and drinking water
- maintain careful food preparation
How can botulism be diagnosed?
- clinical signs
- toxin in serum, stool, or suspected food
- stool culture or gastric aspirate which can take 5-7 days for results
- electromyography to test muscles
- mouse neutralization test
How is pinworm contracted?
injestion of eggs or sleeping in contaminated bedding
What is a granuloma?
cluster of immune cells forming a hard protective cyst around worms
Where does ascaris move in the body? What are 2 symptoms
- after eggs in soil are swallowed young worms leave the intestines and travel to the lungs where they are coughted up and swallowed to grow in the intestines
- two symptoms of ascaris are mild stomach pains, diarrhea, coughing, wheezing and congestion in lungs
What are 3 symptoms of trichinosis? when can trichinosis still be treated
- abdominal pain
- trichinosis can still be treated if the worms are still in the intestines and havent moved to the muscles
How can humans contract tapeworm? What are symptoms of tapeworm?
- humans can become intermediate hosts by consuming shelled larvae in contaminated food
- symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, weakness and loss of appetite
What are the parts of the innate and aquired immune systems?
- innate: external barriers such as skin, mucous membranes, and secretions with lysozymes
- aquired: b and t cells
Difference and similarities between b and t cells
- similarities: both have memory cells, both are wbc's and both circulate the blood
- differences: b cells make antibodies while t cells have t receptors. b cells have 2 types and t cells have 3 and b cells mature in the bone marrow while t cells mature in the thymus.
What is smallpox? why is it now eradicated?
- sits a disease where the infected person gets red spots containing transparent fluid all over the body and eyelids may even swell together
- it is now eradicated thanks to the eradication program containing ring vaccinations where when someone was infected all members of the household and 30 surrounding households were vaccinated
- over 80% at risk were vaccinated
What is measles? how is it prevented?
- its a sickness caused by an airbourne virus
- the fourth worldwide leading cause of death
- airbourne meaning its transmitted through coughs sneezes, etc
- prevented by a vaccine- was mandatory with herd immunity
What are allergies
- when the immune system responds rapidly to harmless substances or allergens
- the allergen is presented and stimulates the t helper cells whcihch release cytokines and stimulate b cells with IgG antibodies. then plasma cells release IgE antibodies which attacth to basophils and mast cells which later release histamines and leukotrines and other mediators so that after the allergens second exposure, degranulation will happen causing capillary dialiation, increased capillary permeability, airyway construction, mucous secretions, pain and itching
What is asthma?
- disease where attacks are allergic reations
- 1/7 of uk children infected
- direct result of pollution
- symptoms: muscles surrounding trachea and airways contract breathing is difficult, wheezing, coughting and tightness about the chest
What are action and graded potential?
- Graded Potential: localized stimulus that never actually reaches the brain
- Action Potential: you feel it! voltage gated channels are actually involved and the outside of the axon becomes more negative
What are 2 ssri's? what are they used to treat
what do they do
- celexa and prozac
- they work to block the transport protiens that reuptake seratonin
- used to treat depression and ocd
What are the two neurotransmitters involved in mood disorders?
What are 2 physical and 2 emotional depression symptoms
- physical: headache and trouble sleeping
- mental: saddness and anxiety
What is bipolar disorder?
and alternating state of reduced mood (depression) and mania (expansive mood)
What is dopamine? explain all about it
- an inhibitory neurotransmitter that when it arrives at receptors, it stops the tendency of neurons to fire
- highly associated with reward mechanisms of the brain
- too much in frontal lobes can cause schizophrenia
- too little in motor areas of the brain can cause parkinsons
- cocaine opium and herione increase dopamine levels