Chemistry Ch. 11

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Chemistry Ch. 11
2011-01-27 22:35:52

Intermolecular forces, liquids, and solids
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  1. A (n) _________ force eists between an ion and the partial charge on the end of a polar molecule.
  2. _________forces are where neutral polar moleclues attract each other when the positive end of one molecule is near the negative end of another.
    • ~Dipole-dipole
    • ~effective only when polar molecules are very close together
    • ~Weaker than ion dipole forces
  3. Two molecules that are attracting each other spend _____ time near each other than do two that are repelling each other.
    • more
    • overall effect is a net attraction
  4. For molecules of approximately equal mass and size, the strengths of intermolecular attractions _____ with increasing polarity.
  5. Boiling point ______ as dipole moment increases.
  6. Molecules with smaller molecular volumes generally experience _____ dipole-dipole attractive forces.
  7. ______ force is when the temporary dipole on one atom can induce a similar temporary dipole on an adjacent atom, causing the atoms to be attracted to each other.
    London dispersion
  8. The ease at which the electron distribution in a molecule is distorted
  9. Dispersion forces between polar molecules commonly contribute _____ to intermolecular attractions than do dipole-dipole forces.
  10. When molecules of 2 substances have comparable weights and shapes, _____forces are equal. The differences in magnitude result from the differences in the strengths of _____________ atractions. With the ____ polar molecule having the stronger attractions.
    • Dispersion
    • Dipole-dipole
    • More
  11. Boiling point ______ with increasing molecular weight.
  12. ______ is a special type of intermolecular attraction between the hydrogen atom in a polar bond and an unshared elecron pair on a nearby small electronegative ion or atom.
    Hydrogen bonding
  13. Hydrogen bonds are generally____ than dipole-dipole or dispersion forces.
  14. The strength of dispersion forces _____ with increased molecular weight and depend on molecular shape.
  15. The resistance of a liquid to flow.
    • Viscosity
    • the greater the viscosity, the more slowly it flows
  16. Viscosity _____ with molecular weight.
  17. Viscosity ______ with increasing temp.
  18. __________ is due to an imbalance of intermolecular forces at the surface of the liquid.
    Surface tension
  19. The energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a unit amount.
    Surface tension
  20. Intermolecular forces that bind similar molecules to one another.
    Cohesive forces
  21. Intermolecular forces that bind a substance to a surface.
    Adhesive forces
  22. Curved upper surface of the water.
  23. The rise of liquids up very narrow tubes.
    Capillary action
  24. Changes directly from the solid to the vapor state.
  25. Each state of matter can change into either of the other 2 states.
    Phase changes
  26. The increased freedom of motion of the molecules or ions
    Heat of fusion
  27. Concentration of gas phase molecules over the liquid increases with temperature. These molecules exert_____
    vapor pressure
  28. The energy required to caue the transition from liquid to gas
    heat of vaporization
  29. Change in Hvap tends to be ______ than change in Hfus.
  30. The enthalpy change required to change solid directly to a gas
    heat of sublimation
  31. heat of freezing- _______
    heat of fusion- _______
    heat of deposition- ______
    heat of sublimation-_______
    • exothermic
    • endothermic
    • exothermic
    • endothermic
  32. Melting is a ______ process
  33. the graph of the temp. of the system vs. the amount of heat added
    heating curve
  34. the amount of heat needed to raise the temp. of a substance is given by the product of the _________, _______, and ________.
    • specific heat
    • mass
    • temperature change
  35. the highest temperature at which a distinct liquid phase can form
    critical temperature
  36. The pressure required to bring about liquification at the critical temp.
    critical pressure
  37. the highest temp at which a liquid can exist
    critical temp
  38. the greater the intermolecular forces, the ______ the critical temp
  39. pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its liquid or solid phase
    vapor pressure
  40. the weaker the attractive forces, the ____ is the number of molecules that are able to escape and therefore, the higher the vapor pressure
  41. the condition in which 2 opposing processes are occuring simultaneously at equal rates
    dynamic equilibrium
  42. when evaporation and condensation occur at equal rates
  43. equilibrium never occurs in an _____space.
  44. Substances with high vapor pressure evaporate ____ quickly than substances with low vapor pressure
  45. liquids that evaporate readily
  46. vapor pressure ________ with increasing temp.
  47. the boiling point of a liquid at 1atm pressure
    normal boiling pt
  48. a graphical way to summarize the conditions under which equilibrium exists between the different states of matter
    phase diagrams
  49. the critical temp and critical pressure of a substance
    critical point
  50. where the 3 curves intersect
    triple point
  51. solids can either be _______ or _______.
    • crystalline
    • amorphous
  52. atoms, ions or molecules are ordered in well defined arrangements
  53. solid whose particles have no orderly structure
  54. amorphous solids dont melt, they ______.
  55. the repeating unit of a solid
    unit cell
  56. 3D array of points
    crystal lattice
  57. a _______ represents an identical environment within the solid
    lattice point
  58. parallelepipeds
    6 sided fiqure whose faces are parallelograms
  59. when lattice points are at conrners only
    primitive cubic
  60. when a lattice point also occurs at the center of the unit cell
    body centered cubic
  61. when the cell has lattice points at the center of each face, as well as each corner
    face centered cubic
  62. spheres of the 3rd layer are placed in line with those of the 1st layer
    hexagonal close packing
  63. spheres of the 3rd layer dont sit above the spheres in the 1st layer
    cubic close packing
  64. the number of particles immediately surrounding a particle in the crystal structure
    coordination number
  65. atoms or molecules held together by intermolecular forces
    • molecular solids
    • usually soft
    • low melting pts
  66. atoms hed togehter in large networks or chains by covalent bonds
    covalent network solids
  67. ions held togehter by ionic bonds
    ionic solids
  68. solids consisting of entirely metals
    metallic solids
  69. bonding in metals is due to _____ _______ that are delocalized througout the entire solid
    valence electrons
  70. strenth of bonding ______ as the # of electrons available for bonding increases