The love of wisdom. The activity of critically and carefully examining the reasons begind our most fundamental assumptions
the branch of philosophy that investigates the nature, sources, limitations, and validity of knowledge
who is Thales?
“Everything ultimately is made of water”
1. Although reality is complex it should be explainable in terms of one or a few basic elements.
2. Reality should be explainable in natural, observable objects (not just chalking it up to the gods).
3. Religious beliefs from the past that can neither be proved or disproved should not be our explanation for things.
*Brahman / **Atman
*the Upanishads called reality Brahman- cannot be seen, smelled, felt or heard. cannot be imagined.
**the deepest self
You are the ultimate reality behind the universe.
follower of Socrates. wrote down the cave. Dialogues.
the branch of philosophy that studies the nature of reality
Who is Heraclitus?
“Reality is change” rivers, flames, etc.
Indian philosophers created terms Brahman and Atman.
taught us that the way to discover the ultimate reality of the universe is to look within ourselves
The branch of philosophy that tries to determine the good and right thing to do
Who was Parmenides?
“change is an illusion”
Parable of the Cave
Prisoners can’t see the light. Only the shadows by the fire on the back walls. Reality consists only of shadows – like watching TV to show you how things really are. A lot of opinions aren’t yours. They have been picked up and taught. Go outside in the light. Get used to shadows, moon, then sun. Then get dragged back down in the cave. etc
"The unexamined life is not worth living"
Father of philosophy. Platos teacher. considered the wisest of men bc he had no pretense about his wisdom.
Who was Zeno?
“Change is an illusion” movement is an illusion of our senses. Bc to get from one point to another, you must hit a halfway point, etc, etc. infinite number of spaces and therefore we cannot move
In the Myth of the Cave, Plato describes
a group of people existing in ignorance at the bottom of the cave
For Plato, the process whereby an individual leaves his or her state of ignorance will occur by
being dragged out reluctantly and forced into the light of reality
The Socratic method primarily focuses upon
For Socrates, the greatest thing a person can do is
question oneself and others to discover what makes us good
According to the Myth of the Cave, the process of getting out of the cave is:
disoienting, painful, frightening, gradual
Socrates was condemned to death for
impiety and corrupting the youth
While the Oracle at Delphi claimed Socrates was the wisest of men, Socrates came to accept this as true b/c he
knew, he didn't know
Philosophy consists of all of the following except:
The primary value of philosophy is
T or F:
The female Greek philosopher, Perictione, wrote that while other subjects study a particular aspect of the world, philosophy is concerned with all that exists.
T or F: The Republic shows Socrates at his trial, defending his life-long commitment to philosophy.
T or F:
Socrates asks Euthyphro to ID the characteristic that makes all beautiful things beautiful.
T or F:
in The Apology Socrates argues that the unexamined life is not worth living.
T or F:
In Crito, Socrates argues that we should obey the laws of society b/c they are established by God
what constitutes something as a human being; what makes us different from anything else; the collection of qualities that make us human
The view that human beings are so constituted that the must always act out of self-interest
Frued - Humans are selfish and agressive
Hobbes - humans act to seek satisfactrion of their own mechanistic desires
self- the ego or "I" that exists in a physical body and that is conscious and rational
soul - an immaterial entitu that is identified with consciousness, mind, or personality
according to Plato, soul consists of:
Traditional Rational View
Reason is what sets humans aside from animals
Aristotles' view - everything has its own unique purpose.
Western Religious View
-choosing good or evil-
Humans are constantly attracted to evil (away from God) people sin because they can.
Aquinas said humans should use their reason to know God - that is our purpose
1. vatiantions: animals and plants are sometimes born wtih features that are different from those of their parents but that they can pass on to their own offspring
2. struggle for existence: Because animals produce more offspring than can survive, they are continuously caught in a great struggle
humans are whatever they make themselves
[there are no true, universal statements about what humans are; we are free]
Reason is considered more of a masculine trait. Aristotle started this belief (he also supported slavery to a degree)
The traditional study of human nature has been as attempt to
discover if there is anything distinct and significant about humans
According to the traditional Greek view, the soul was
composed of 3 parts: aggression, appetite, and reason
Plato compared the parts of the soul to
a chariot with a chrioteer and 2 horses
According to Aristotle, reality is permeated with
For the Greeks, the essence of human nature was
According to the Judaic-Christian-Islamic view of human nature, humans are
created in the image of God
The Judaic-Christian-Islamic view of human nature differed from the traditional Greek view in that it emphasized our
capacity for choice
According to the traditional Christian view, as espoused by Aquinas, it is an essential aspect of human nature to
want to know God
The theory of natural selection claims that
there is a difference in degree between humans and all other creatures
By the 20th century the view that there is something significant and distinct about humans
is viewed with skepticism
humans are self-defining creatures
T or F:
Plato believed the self consisted of reason, appetite, and desire.
T or F:
Saint Augustine borrowed Plato's view that humans have an immaterial and immortal soul.
T or F:
According to Darwin, humans are the products of a purposeful plan
T or F:
Darwin wrote: "Existence precedes essence."
T or F:
According to the existentialist view, humans create their own nature.