*The human circulatory system consists of the heart, a series of blood vessels, and the blood that flows through them.
two thin layers of epithelial and connective tissue that fomr a sandwhich around the a thick layer of muscle called the myocardium
the upper chamber of the heart that receives blood
lower chamber that pumps blood out of the heart
the right side of the heart pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
from the left artium of the heart, blood is pumped into the left ventricle and from there to the body tissues
flaps of connective tissue between the atria and the ventricles. blood moving from the atria holds the valves open. when the ventricles contract, the valves close, which prevents blood from flowing into the atria
A specialized region of the right atrium of the mammalian heart that sets the rate of contraction; also called the sinoatrial (SA) node.
the first of a series of blood vessels that carries the blood on its round trip through the body and back to the heart
*Name the three types of blood vessels in the circulatory system.
*As blood flows through the circulatory system, it moves through 3 types of blood vessels- arteries, capillaries, and veins.
large vessels that carry blood from the heart to the tissues of the body
smallest of the blood vessels. they bring nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and absorbing carbon dioxide and other waste products
returns blood that has passed through the capillary system back to the heart
a condition in which fatty deposits calld plaque build up on the inner wall of the arteries
straw colored fluid that consists of 90% water and 10% dissolved gases, salts, enzymes, hormones, waste products, and proteins called plasma proteins
albumins, globulins, fibrinogen
transport substances such as fatty acids, hormones, and vitamins. regulate osmotic pressure and blood volume
transport substances such as fatty acids, hormones, and vitamins. some fight viral and bacterial infections
protein responsible for the ability of blood to clot
*List the main function of red blood cells.
*Red blood cells transport oxygen.
iron-containing protein that binds to oxygen in the lungs and transports it to tissues throughout the body. also where red blood cells get their color
*List the main function of white blood cells.
*White blood cells are the "army" of the circulatory system- they guard against infection, fight parasites, and attack bacteria.
white blood cells that are involved in the immune response. B lymphocytes produce antibodies which are essential for fighting infection and help to produce immunity to many diseases. T lymphocytes help fight tumors and viruses
*List the main function of platelets.
*Blood clotting is made possible by plasma proteins and cell fragments called platelets.
plasma proteins and cell fragments that make blood clotting possible
*Describe the role of the lymphatic system.
*A network of vessels, nodes, and organs called the lymphatic system collects the fluid that is lost by the blood and returns it back to the circulatory system.
fluid that escapes from the circulatory system
*Interpret the function of the respiratory system by stating what it does.
*The basic function performed by the human respiratory system is remarkably simple- to bring about the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood, the air, and tissues.
a passageway for both air and food
air moves from pharynx to trachea, or windpipe. the epiglottis, a flap of tissue, covers the entrance to the trachea when you swallow
located at the top of the trachea. containse two highly elastic folds of tissue known as the vocal cords
bronchi (singular: bronchus)
two large passageways in the chest cavity that leads one into each lung. it subdivides into smaller bronchi and then to bronchioles
alveoli (singular: alveolus)
series of dead endys tat are grouped into little clusters. capillaries surround each alveolus
large, flat muscle that inflates the lungs. the lungs are sealed in two sacs called the pleural membranes inside the chest cavity. at the bottom of the cavity is the diaphragm
stimulant drug that increases heart rate and blood pressure
poisonous gas that blocks the transport of oxygen by hemoglobin in the blood. it decreases the blood's ability to supply oxygen to its tissues, depriving the heart and other organs of the oxygen they need to function
contains compounds that cause cancer
*Describe some of the health problems caused by smoking tobaco.
*Smoking can cause such respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer.
the loss of elasticity in the tissues of the lungs