Org Psyc Exam 1
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philosophy suggesting most people are lazy and irresponsible and will work hard only when forced to.
philosophy suggesting under the right circumstances people are fully capable of working productively and accepting responsibility for their work.
earlist research in the field of OB, performed to determine how the design of work environments affected performance.
process of combining and interpreting info about others to gain an accurate understanding of them.
process through which people try to determine the causes of another's behavior.
characteristics that define a particular individual.
who a person is, as defined in terms of his or her membership in various social groups.
social identity theory
conceptualization recognizing that the way we perceive others and ourselves is based on both our characteristics (personal identity) and our membership in various groups (social identity).
basking in reflected glory
tendency for people to identify themselves with the successes of others such that those others success becomes their own.
cutting off reflected failure
tendency for people to avoid making failure part of their identities by dissociating themselves from individuals or teams that have lost.
judgments about people's dispositions, and traits that correspond to what we've observed of their actions.
internal causes of behavior
explanations based on actions for which the indiv is responsible.
external causes of behavior
explanations based on situations over which the indiv has no control.
Kelley's theory of causal attribution
people will believe other's action to be from internal factors or external factors based on consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness.
extent to which other people behave in the same manner as the person we're judging.
extent to which the person we're judging acts the same way at other times.
extent to which a person behaves in the same manner in other contexts.
predispositions that people have to misperceive others in various ways.
fundamental attribution error
tendency to attribute others' actions to internal causes and ignore external factors that may have influenced behavior.
- tendency for our overall impressions of others to affect objective evaluations of their specific traits
- perceiving high correlations between characteristics that may be unrelated.
team halo effect
tendency for people to credit teams for their successes but not hold them accountable for their failures.
tendency for people to perceive in a positive light others who are believed to be similar to themselves in any of several different ways.
tendency to focus on some aspects of the environment while ignoring others.
tendency to base our judgments of others on our initial impressions of them.
tendency for someone's expectations about another to cause that person to behave in a manner consistent with those expectations. (can be pos or neg)
- positive instance of the self-fulfilling prophecy
- people holding high expectations of another tend to improve that person's performance.
- negative instance of self-fulfilling prophecy
- people holding low expectations of another tend to lower that person's performance.
belief that all members of specific groups share similar traits and are prone to behave identically.
unconfortable feeling that people have when they run the rusk of fulfilling a negative stereotype associated with a group to which they belong.
efforts by indivs to improve how they appear to others.
evaluating employees on various work related dimensions.
relatively permanent change in behavior occurring as a result of experience
Law of Effect
tendency for behaviors leading to good consequences to increase and those leading to bad consequences to decrease.
contingencies of reinforcement
various relationships b/t one's behavior and the consequences of it (pos reinforcement, neg reinforcement, punishment, extinction)
behaving in a way that leads to s desired outcome.
- behaving in a way that removes a negative outcome.
decreasing bad behavior by following it with undesirable consequences.
behavior no longer reinforced tends to gradually diminish in strength/frequency.
observational learning (modeling)
people learn by observing rewards and punishments of others.
- current feelings
- changing mood + stable traits
- tendency to experience positive modds and feelings in a wide range of settings and under many different conditions.
- (apathy, sluggishness - joy enthusiasm)
- tendency to experience negative modds in a wide range of settings and in many diff conditions.
- (calm, relaxed - fearful, nervousness)
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