Chapter 29

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Author:
mtglass
ID:
62556
Filename:
Chapter 29
Updated:
2011-01-28 03:00:52
Tags:
evolution
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Description:
Protists
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  1. Protists are a _____ grouping, meaning that they represent some, but not all, of the descendants of a single common ancestor, that includes all eukaryotes except the green plants, fungi, and animals.
    Protists are a paraphyletic grouping, meaning that they represent some, but not all, of the descendants of a single common ancestor, that includes all eukaryotes except the green plants, fungi, and animals.
  2. Protists are:
    a) unicellular
    b) multicellular
    c) may be both a and b
    c
  3. ____ ________ evolved in protists.
    Sexual reproduction evolved in protists.
  4. Protists reproduce:
    A) sexually
    B) can reproduce sexually and asexually
    C) asexually
    B) can reproduce sexually and asexually
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Eukaryotes vs. Bacteria & Archaea?
    • 1.) eukarotes have a nuclear envelope
    • 2.) have many more organelles
    • 3.) multicellularity (rare in Bac, and unknown in Arch)
    • 4.) reproduction; undergo cell division via mitosis as well as meiosis (Bac and Arch reproduce my fission
  6. Protist refers to all eukaryotes that are not _____, ______, or _______.
    • -green plants,
    • -fungi
    • -animals
  7. When a unicellular species experiences rapid pop growth and reaches high densities in an aquatic environment, it is said to "_____."
    When a unicellular species experiences rapid pop growth and reaches high densities in an aquatic environment, it is said to "bloom."
  8. Ex of primary producers:
    _______ are photosynthetic protists that rank among leading primary producers in the oceans because they're so abundant.
    Diatoms are photosynthetic protists that rank among leading primary producers in the oceans because they're so abundant.
  9. The organic compounds produced by ___________ are the basis of food chains in freshwater and marine environments.
    The organic compounds produced by phytoplankton are the basis of food chains in freshwater and marine environments.
  10. What are synapomorphies?
    Shared, derived traits that distinguish major monophyletic groups.
  11. ______ __________ is based on collecting organisms from a habitat & analyzing the DNA sequence of specific genes w/o growing larger pops. of indiv in lab culture.
    Direct sequencing is based on collecting organisms from a habitat & analyzing the DNA sequence of specific genes w/o growing larger pops. of indiv in lab culture.
  12. How did the nuclear envelope develop?
    derived from infoldings of the plasma membrane
  13. Mitochondria are organelles that generate ATP using ________ as an electron donor & ______ as the ultimate electron acceptor.
    Mitochondria are organelles that generate ATP using pyruvate as an electron donor & oxygen as the ultimate electron acceptor.
  14. The endosymbiosis theory proposes that _________ originated when a bacterial cell took residence inside a eukaryote.
    The endosymbiosis theory proposes that mitochondria originated when a bacterial cell took residence inside a eukaryote.
  15. ________ is said to occur when individuals of two different species live in physical contact.
    Symbiosis is said to occur when individuals of two different species live in physical contact.
  16. When does endosymbiosis occur?
    Endosymbiosis-when an organism of 1 species lives inside an organism of another species.
  17. What is the key point about multicellularity?
    Not all cells express the same genes.
  18. How do protists feed?
    • 1.) ingesting packets of food
    • 2.) absorbing organic molecules directly from the environment
    • 3.) performing photosynthesis
  19. T/F The engulfing process is possible in protists that lack a cell wall.
    True
  20. Decomposer?
    organism that feeds on dead organic matter, or detritus
  21. How is the endosymbiosis theory similar to a happy partnership?
    Once in protist, photosynthetic bacterium provided its eukaryotic host w/ O2 and glucose in exchange for protection & access to light
  22. When does secondary endosymbiosis occur?
    When an organism engulfs a photosynthetic eukaryotic cell & retains it chloroplasts as intracellular symbionts.
  23. How do protists move?
    • -Amoeboid motion via pseudopodia- requires ATP and actin, myosin inside cytoplasm.
    • -Flagella: long and found alone or in pairs
    • -Cilia: short and occur in large #s
  24. What is the most significant evolutionary innovation in eukaryotes?
    Evolution of sexual reproduction
  25. A life cycle describes the sequence of events that occur as individuals _____, ______, and ________.
    A life cycle describes the sequence of events that occur as individuals grow, mature, and reproduce.
  26. What is fertilization?
    Fertilization- the fusion of 2 gametes to form a diploid zygote.
  27. What is alternation of generations?
    • alternation of multicellular haploid and diploid forms.
    • (the multicellular haploid form is called a gametophyte,because specialized cells produce gametes by mitosis)

    (the multicellular diploid form is called a sporophyte, because it has specialized cells that go through meiosis to produce haploid cells called spores)
  28. What is a spore?
    A single cell that develops into an adult organism but is not a product of fusion by gametes.
  29. Why are protists considered paraphyletic?
    a) They include many extinct forms, including lineages that no longer have any living representative.
    b) They include some but not all, descendants of their most recent common ancestor.
    c) They represent all of the descendants of a single common ancestor.
    d) Not all protists have all of the synapomorphies that define the Eukarya, such as a nucleus.
    b

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