sgu vet histo set 2

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Author:
onaktan
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6256
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sgu vet histo set 2
Updated:
2010-02-07 12:09:57
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sgu vet histo set2
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er, golgi complex, lysosomes,peroxisomes, mitochondria, cytoskeleton
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  1. what is made up of a network of tubules bounded by membranes
    endoplasmic reticulum
  2. what is endoplasmic reticulum made up of (in general)
    a network of tubules bounded by memberanes
  3. what are the 2 types of ER (2)
    • rER (rough ER)
    • sER (smooth ER)
  4. what do rER have that sER do not have
    ribosomes
  5. how does rER stain
    basophilic (purple)
  6. how does sER stain
    acidophilic (pink)
  7. what type of ER is basophilic
    rER
  8. what type of ER is acidophilic
    sER
  9. what is rER's function (2)
    • protein synthesis
    • lysosomal enzyme synthesis
  10. what synthesizes protein and lysosomal enzymes
    rER
  11. what is sER's functions (3)
    • synthesize steroid hormones
    • part of drug detoxification
    • release/recapture of Ca(2+) in contraction/relation of muscles
  12. what synthesizes steroid hormones
    sER
  13. what is involved in drug detoxification
    sER
  14. what is responsible for release/recapture of Ca(2+) in contracting and relaxing muslces
    sER
  15. what is one of steroid hormones' function
    lipid metabolism
  16. what has enzymes on its membranes for steroid hormone synthesis
    sER
  17. what type of stain do you use to visualize the golgi complex (2)
    • silver salt
    • osmium
  18. how does the golgi complex look after being stained
    black network of cisternae
  19. what is visualized with silver salt
    golgi complex
  20. with is visualized with osmium
    golgi complex
  21. what appears as a black network of cisternae when stained with silver salt or osmium
    golgi complex
  22. how is the golgi complex structured
    parallel membranes bounded by flattend cisternae and associated tubules and vesicles on either side
  23. what is made up of paralle membranes bounded by flattend cisternae and associated tubles and vesicles on either side
    golgi complex
  24. what is the golgi complex's function (2)
    • sight for accumulation and concentration of secretory proteins into membrane bound besicles (packing)
    • biosynthesis of glycoprotiens/lipids and phospho-/neutral lipids
  25. what is the site for accumulation and concentration of secretory proteins into membrane bound vesicles
    golgi complex
  26. what biosynthesizes glycoprotiens, glycolipids, phospholipids, and neutral lipids
    golgi complex
  27. what are the 4 types of things the golgi complex biosynthesize (4)
    • glycoprotiens
    • glycolipids
    • phospholipids
    • neutral lipids
  28. how is a lysosome structured
    membrane bound vesicle
  29. what does a lysosome contain
    nucleases, proteases, lipases, etc
  30. what kind of enzymes do lysosomes contain
    hydrolytic
  31. what contains hydrolytic enzymes
    lysosomes
  32. what contains nucleases, proteases, and lipases
    lysosomes
  33. where does the enzymes of a lysosome made
    rER
  34. what is a primary lysosome
    a modified, packaged membrane bound vesicle containing
  35. what emerges from the golgi complex thats contained in a membrane bound vesicle with hydrolytic enzymes
    lysosomes
  36. primary lysosomes emerge from where
    golgi complex
  37. what do primary lysosomes fuse with to turn into a secondary lysosome (2)
    • phagocytosed material
    • obsolete/dead cellular organelles
  38. what are the 2 pathways that the primary lysosome can take to turn into a secondary lysosome
    • phagosome
    • autophagosome
  39. what is the process in which a priamry lysosome fuses with an obsolete/dead organelle
    autophagy
  40. what happens in the secondary lysosome
    digestion/breakdown of the phagocytosed material (microorganisim) or obsolete/dead organelle
  41. where does the digestion/breakdown of phagocytosed material or dead organelle take place
    secondary lysosome
  42. what is the result of a secondary lysosome (2)
    • lipofuscin (age pigment)
    • exocytosed material (if possible)
  43. what is the age pigment
    lipofuscin
  44. what is a lipofuscin (2)
    • product of the digestion/break down of phagocytosed material or dead oranelles
    • aging pigment
  45. how long do lipfuscin stay in the cell
    forever/until the cell dies
  46. what type of cells have a lot of lipfuscin
    nerve cells
  47. what do nerve cells have a lot of
    lipfuscin (aging pigment)
  48. what is the structure of peroxisomes
    small membrane bound organelles
  49. what is a small membrane bound organelle
    peroxisomes
  50. what do peroxisomes contain (2)
    • oxidase
    • catalase
    • both used for synthesis/destruction of H2O2
  51. what contains oxidase and catalase
    peroxisomes
  52. where are peroxisomes found (2)
    • hepatocytes
    • proximal convoluted tubules of kidney
  53. what is found in hepatocytes and the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney
    peroxisomes
  54. what are peroxisomes functions (3)
    • get energy from oxidation of H2O2
    • detoxify things like ethonol
    • plays a role in gluconeogenesis
  55. what produces energy from H2O2, detoxifies ethonol and plays a role in gluconeogenesis
    peroxisomes
  56. what does mitochondria have that almost no other organelle contain
    its own DNA
  57. what organelle has it's own DNA unlike most other organelles
    mitochondria
  58. where is mitochondrial DNA found
    in the mitochondrial matrix
  59. what stain is used in living cells to visualize mitochondria
    Janus Green B
  60. what is the stan Janus Green B used for
    to visualize mitochondria in living cells
  61. what is mitochndria's main function
    the power house of the cell, it produces ATP and has high metabolic activity
  62. what is the main source of energy and has high metabolic activity in cells
    mitochondria
  63. how is mitochondria structured
    outer/inner membrane with the innner membrane folded (cristae)
  64. what has a outer and inner membrane with it's inner membrane contain many folds or cristae
    mitochondria
  65. what is in the mitochondria matrix (2)
    • DNA
    • ribosomes
  66. what has DNA and ribosomes in mitochondria
    mitochondria matrix
  67. what is containes enzymes for oxidative phosphorylation
    inner mitochondrial membrane
  68. what does the inner membrane of the mitochondria contain
    enzymes for oxidative phosphorylation
  69. what is the composistion of the cytoskeleton (3)
    • microfilaments
    • intermediate filaments
    • microtubules
    • the 3 are embedded in the cytoplasmic matrix or cytosol
  70. what is made up of microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules embedded in the cytoplasmic matrix or cytosol
    cytoskeleton
  71. where are microfilaments mainly found
    muscle cells
  72. what are microfilament's function in muscle cells
    cellular contraction
  73. what type of microfilaments are in muslce cells (2)
    • actin filaments
    • myosin filaments
  74. in muscle cells, what is actin and myosin filaments composed of
    microfilaments
  75. in cells other then muscle, what is the structure of microfilaments
    form a think sheath just beneath cell membrane
  76. in cells other then muscle, what is the function of microfilaments (3)
    • endocytosis
    • exocytosis
    • cell migratory activity
  77. what forms a thin sheath just beneath the plasmalemma in most cells
    microfilaments
  78. what are associated with membrane activities such as endocytosis, exocytosis and cell migratory activity
    microfilaments
  79. what gives strength and shape to a cell
    intermediate filaments
  80. what type of filament is present in almost all cells
    intermediate filaments
  81. what is abundant in cells that are subjected to mechanical stress
    intermediate filaments
  82. what do intermediate filaments usually provide for cells (4)
    • strength
    • shape
    • protection
    • mechanical stability
  83. keratin filaments do what (2)
    • provide mechanical stability by formation of desmosomes
    • protection in keratinized epithelium
  84. what privieds mechanical stability by formation of desmosomes
    keratin filaments (a type of intermediate filament)
  85. what gives protection in keratinized epithelium
    keratin filaments (a type of intermediate filament)
  86. what are the types of intermediate filaments (4)
    • keratin filaments
    • desmin filaments
    • neurofilaments
    • glial filaments
  87. what do keratin filaments, desmin filaments, neurofilaments, and glial filaments make up
    intermediate filaments
  88. what is another name for keratin filaments
    tonofilaments
  89. what are tonofilaments
    keratin filaments
  90. what do desmin filaments do
    support muscle cells
  91. what type of filament supports muscle cells
    desmin filaments
  92. what do neurofilaments do
    support nerve cells
  93. what type of filament supports nerve cells
    neurofilaments
  94. what do glial filaments do
    support astrocytes and neurolemmocytes (schwann cells)
  95. what type of filament supports astrocytes and neurolemmocytes (schwann cells)
    glial filaments
  96. what plays a significant role in maintenance of cell form and transport of organelles and vesicles, such as secretory granules
    microtubules
  97. what plays an essential role in cell division and are the major component of the centriole
    microtubules
  98. what do microtubules have significant/essential roles in (2)
    • plays a significant role in maintenance of cell form and transport of organelles and vesicles, such as secretory granules
    • plays an essential role in cell division and are the major component of the centriole
  99. what functions does microtubules have in the cell (5)
    • maintains cell form
    • transport of organelles
    • transport of vesicles (ex secretory granules)
    • role in cell division
    • major component of centriole
  100. what is a major component of centrioles
    microtubules
  101. what are centrioles comprised of
    9 groups of 3 microtubules (triplets) in longitudinal and paralle arrangment
  102. what is 9 groups of triplet microtubles arranged in longitudinal and parallelly
    centrioles
  103. what do microtubules help maintain
    cell form
  104. what do microtubules help transport in the cell (2)
    • organelles
    • vesicles (ex secretory granules)
  105. what are microtubules major component of
    centrioles
  106. what are centrioles used for
    cell division
  107. what type of cytoskeleton is used in cell division
    centrioles which is composed of microtubules
  108. what type of cytoskeleton makes up cilia and flagella
    microtubles
  109. what types of specialized of the free cell surface is made of microtubules (2)
    • cilia
    • flagella

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