Bone_pathology.csv

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Author:
elplute
ID:
62572
Filename:
Bone_pathology.csv
Updated:
2011-01-28 06:53:09
Tags:
bone osteosarcoma osteoid osteoma chondrosarcoma
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Description:
Bone pathology
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  1. osteoid osteoma
    benign neoplasm of bone; usually presents in males aged 10-25; characterized by pain at night that is relieved by aspirin; primarily affects femur & tibia & occasionally vertebrae; histologically - central nidus of woven hemorrhagic bone surrounded by reactive sclerosis; large osteoid osteoma (>2 cm) = osteoblastoma
  2. Ewing sarcoma
    small round blue cell tumor; translation-associated (usually up-regulates expression of inappropriate genes); diaphyseal; tends to occur in young children; 'onion skin' look; M > F
  3. enchondroma
    benign neoplasm of cartilage; found inside bone; 'popcorn' calcifications on imaging; generally asymptomatic but may lead to pathologic fracture; originate in medullary canal; histology shows benign cartilage
  4. chondroma
    benign neoplasm of cartilage; found outside bone; 'popcorn' calcifications on imaging; generally asymptomatic but may lead to pathologic fracture; originate in medullary canal; histology shows benign cartilage
  5. osteochondroma
    most common neoplasm of bone; projection of cartilage & bone; bony stalk with cartilaginous cap; bone marrow extends from medullary cavity into stalk; therapy = excision; generally stop growing when patient reaches maturity
  6. metastatic disease
    most common tumor found in bone; 'BLT + a Kosher Pickle' - breast & lung & thyroid & kidney & prostate disease; may be lytic or blastic
  7. osteosarcoma
    malignant cancer of bone; generally occurs in children or elderly patients with predisposing factors; M > F; majority of pediatric osteosarcomas = around knee area; majority of adult osteosarcomas = in axial skeleton; almost all occur in the metaphysis; may present with pain & swelling or pathologic fracture or elevated serum alkaline phosphatase levels; considered high-grade or low-grade; 80% of metastases go to the lungs
  8. chondrosarcoma
    malignant cancer of bone; tends to affect people between 30-60; M = F; does not respond well to chemotherapy or radiation (little vasculature); tends to be in trunk/pelvis/long bones; 'popcorn' calcifications; classified as grade 1 or 2 or 3
  9. lamellar bone
    characterized by regular parallel alignment of collagen fibers (as opposed to woven bone)
  10. woven bone
    characterized by disorganized alignment of collagen fibers; normal in growing children but pathological in adults; occurs in healing bone
  11. high- vs. low-grade osteosarcoma
    high-grade - requires surgery as well as adjuvent/neo-adjuvent therapy; low-grade - requires only surgery; % tumor necrosis after neo-adjuvent therapy = best prognostic indicator (>90% destroyed = good responder while <90% = bad responder)
  12. radiologic imaging of bone
    X-ray - check to see if tumor is lytic (bone-degrading) or blastic (building of bone); CT scan - detail & used to look for pulmonary metastases; MRI - good for looking at soft tissue; radionucleotide scan - good for looking for metastases
  13. periosteal reaction
    lifting of periosteum above advancing tumor margin; tends to occur more in children;reactive bone laid down underneath lifted margin (Codman triangle); may also occur with osteomyelitis

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