Glycolysis S1M1

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lancesadams
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62623
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Glycolysis S1M1
Updated:
2011-04-16 09:37:34
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Biochem
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Biochem
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  1. Metabolism
    is the set of chemical reactions that happen in living organisms to maintain life
  2. NORMAL METABOLISM IS A HIGHLY CONTROLLED AND REGULATED and is a
    BALANCE BETWEEN ANABOLISM AND CATABOLISM
  3. CATABOLIC PROCESSES RELEASE CHEMICAL ENERGY STORED IN COMPLEX MOLECULES such as
    ENERGY SAVED AS ATP, NADH, NADPH, FADH2 OR USED AS NEEDED IN VARIOUS PROCESSES
  4. ANABOLIC PROCESSES BUILD COMPLEX MOLECULES FROM SIMPLER MOLECULES and REQUIRE ENERGY USUALLY FROM
    ATP, NADH, NADPH and FADH2
  5. METABOLIC FUELS (STORAGE MOLECULES)
    PROTEINS, POLYSACCHARIDES, LIPIDS
  6. Catabolism
    is the set of pathways that break down molecules into smaller units and release energy
  7. Glycolysis will happen in both
    Aerobic and anaerobc environments
  8. Under anaerobic conditions, the end product of glycolysis is
    Two molecules of lactic acid. (often referred to as lactic acid fermentation)
  9. Under aerobic conditions, the end product is
    Two molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose as well as two NADH
  10. Glycolysis takes place in
    the cytosol
  11. Some organisms (yeast) under anaerobic conditions convert pyruvate
    to ethanol; alcoholic fermentation
  12. Gluconeogenesis
    Gluconeogenesis is the synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors such as pyruvic and lactic acid.
  13. Glucose characteristics
    Very soluble source of quick and ready energy.

    It is a relatively stable and easily transported.

    In mammals, the brain uses only glucose under non-starvation conditions.

    Under starvation conditions ketone bodies become a source of energy for the brain

    Glucose is the only source of energy in red blood cells.
  14. A hexokinase is
    The first step of glycolysis (not reversible) has a low Km and low Vmax
  15. Liver also contains a specialized form of hexokinase known as
    glucokinase
  16. Hexokinase is inhinited by
    Glucose-6-Phosphate (Its product)
  17. Glucokinase characteristics
    much higher Km for glucose, is not inhibited by glucose 6-phosphate, is absent in muscle and is deficient in patients with diabetes
  18. At normal blood glucose concentrations hexokinase is
    fully saturated, glucokinase is not
  19. Glucokinase is present at high concentration in
    The liver and is induced in response to D-glucose
  20. Glucokinase assures that at high concentrations (like that following a carb rich meal)
    Glucose is not wasted. Instead it is converted to glucose 6-phosphate for subsequent synthesis of glycogen
  21. Hexokinase can also phosphorylate
    fructose, mannose, and glucosamine, whereas glucokinase cannot.
  22. First reaction does not commit glucose to glycolysis, since
    Glucose-6-phosphate represents a branch point in carbohydrate metabolism. It also enters pentose phosphate pathway and glycogenesis.
  23. PFK-1 (Phosphofructokinase-1) is an important allosteric enzyme which
    Regulates the rate of glucose catabolism and plays a role in integrating metabolism. (Committed step)
  24. The PFK reaction is the first unique and irreversible step in
    The glycolytic pathway
  25. PFK1 is inhibited by
    High ATP
  26. PFK is triggered by
    High AMP and even more so by Fructose 2,6 bisphosphate
  27. Phosphorylation is
    the addition of a phosphate (PO4) group to a protein or other organic molecule
  28. The Conversion of Glucose to Pyruvate
    • Glucose + 2 Pi + 2 ADP + 2 NAD+ →
    • 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH +2 H
  29. The Energy released from the anaerobic conversion of glucose to pyruvate is
    -47kcal
  30. In what conditions can much more chemical bond energy be extracted from pyruvate.
    Under aerobic conditions
  31. Under anaerobic conditions pyruvate is converted to
    lactate. Exercising muscle is an example.
  32. Cori cycle:
    the liver furnishes glucose to contracting skeletal muscle, which derives ATP from the glycolytic conversion of glucose into lactate. Contracting skeletal muscle supplies lactate to the liver, which use it to synthesize glucose.
  33. The NAD+ that is consumed in the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate reaction is
    produced in the lactate DH reaction. Thus, redox balance is maintained.
  34. The NADH that is produced in the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate reaction is
    consumed in the lactate DH reaction. Thus, redox balance is maintained.
  35. The three regulatory steps in glycolysis are
    • 1. Hexokinase
    • 2. Phophofructokinase
    • 3. Pyruvate Kinase
  36. Floride can inhibit whatt step in glycolysis
    Enolase
  37. The first ATP producing step is
    Phosphoglycerate Kinase (2ATP)
  38. The two steps that require ATP are
    Hexokinase, Phosphofructokinase
  39. What step can Arsenate effect
    Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate dehydrogenase (the first Redox)
  40. What is found in high amounts in the red blood cells but not in in others
    2,3 BPG
  41. In normal cells the redox state is the ratio
    • NAD+/NADH + H+ =8/1
    • In excess of alcohol 1/1
  42. High NADH causes
    inhibition of gluconeogenesis (prevent oxidation of lactate to pyruvate)= lactate accumulation

    Inhibits fatty acid oxidation, stimulating fatty acid synthesis in the liver = fatty liver
  43. Fructose 2,6-Bisphosphate (which regulates PFK1) is synthesized by
    PFK2
  44. What increases F2,6-BP
    A high Insulin/Glucagon ratio after a high carb meal
  45. What regulates the PFK1 level in the liver and adipose tissue
    F2,6-BP
  46. Glucagon is only active where
    In the liver
  47. What are the steps of the signaling cascade for deactivation of glycolysis in the liver
    Activation of PKA---Phosphorilation of PFK-2----breakdown of F2,6-BP---Decrease in PFK1
  48. Epinephrine in the Liver limits glycolysis by
    Elevates cAMP, Increasing the breakdown of PFK-2 thus making less F2,6-BP to activate glycolysis
  49. Epinephrine in the heart has what effect on glycolysis
    • Increases cAMP, increasing PFK-2 Kinase.
    • This activates F2,6-BP increasing glycolysis in the heart (Fight or Flight Response)
  50. Lactate fermentation and alcohol fermentation have what in common
    The use up the NADH's produced by glycolysis
  51. The reaction that requires a continuous supply of NAD+ is
    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate Dehydrogenase (G3PD)
  52. Glucagon activates fructose-2,6-bisphophatase to decrease fructose2,6-bisphosphate concentration when
    Blood glucose levels are low
  53. A high carb meal translates to
    High insulin and low glucagon
  54. Decreased lactate production in the eurythrocytes indicates
    A defect in glycolysis (95% of the people showing a defect of glycolytic enzymes are attributed to pyruvate kinase)
  55. What is the reaction intermediate of ethanol breakdown that causes a hangover
    Acetylaldehyde
  56. What is hemolytic anemia, and how does glycolysis relate to it
    The abnormal breakdown of RBCs.
  57. When pyruvate kinase isn't functioning ATP is low. Without ATP the RBC's can't use their pumps causing an inproper ion balance deforming the cell

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