Volume 4 Chapter 6

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Volume 4 Chapter 6
2011-01-28 15:55:25
Volume Chapter

Volume 4 Chapter 6
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  1. Layers of the Skin
    • Epidermis-outermost layer
    • Dermis- middle layer
    • Subcutaneous- fatty layer below
  2. Basic Types of Burns
    • Thermal
    • Electrical
    • Chemical
    • Radiation
  3. Functions of the Skin
    • Protection from infectious agents
    • Sensation (pain, temperature, touch)
    • Fluid control
    • Temperature regulation
    • Insulation from trauma
    • Flexibility
  4. Denature
    Alter the usual substance of something
  5. Jackson's Theory of Thermal Wounds
    Explanation of the physical effects of burns.
  6. Zone of Coagulation
    Area in a burn nearest to the heat source which suffers the most damage. Characterized by clotted blood and thrombosed vessels
  7. Zone of Stasis
    Area in a burn surrounding the zone of coagulation. Characterized by decreased blood flow
  8. Zone of Hyperemia
    Area peripheral to a burn that is characterized by increased bloodflow
  9. Emergency Phase
    First stage of burn process characterized by catecholamine release and pain-mediated response
  10. Fluid Shift Phase
    Stage of burn process in which there is a massive shift of fluid from the intravascular space to the extravascular space
  11. Intravascular Space
    Volume of fluid contained in the circulatory system
  12. Extravascular Space
    Fluid contained by all cells and interstitial spcae
  13. Hypermetabolic Phase
    Stage of burn process in which there is increased body metabolism in an attempt to heal the burned area
  14. Resolution Phase
    Final stage of the burn process in which scar tissue is laid down and the healing process is completed
  15. Voltage
    Difference of electrical potential between two points with different concentrations of electrons
  16. Current
    Rate of flow of an electrical charge
  17. Ampere
    Unit for measuring the strength of an electric current
  18. Resistance
    Property of a conductor that opposes the passage of an electrical current
  19. Ohm
    Basic unit for measuring strength of resistance
  20. Ohm's Law
    • Physical law identifying that the current in an electrical circuit is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance.
    • Voltage=Current (I) x Resistance (R)
  21. Joule's Law
    • Physical law stating that the rate of heat production is directly proportional to the resistance of the circuit and to the square of the current
    • P=Current squared x Resistance X Time
  22. Processes of Chemical Burns
    • Acids- usually form a thick, insoluble mass where the contact tissue through coagulation necrosis and limiting burn damage
    • Alkali- usually continue to destroy cell membranes through liquefaction necrosis, allowing them to penetrate under-lying tissue and causing deeper burns
  23. Coagulation Necrosis
    Process in which the acid, which destroying tissue, forms an insoluble layer that limits further damage
  24. Liquefaction Necrosis
    The process in which alkalis dissolve and liquefy tissue
  25. Ionization
    Process of changing a substance into seperate particles (ions).
  26. Levels of Radiation
    • Alpha- minor
    • Beta- moderate
    • Gamma- severe
  27. Alpha Radiation
    Low-level form of nuclear radiation. Weak soruce of energy that is stopped by clothing or the first layers of skin
  28. Beta Radiation
    Medium-Strength radiation that is stopped by light clothing or first layers of skin
  29. Gamma Radiation
    Powerful electromagnetic radiation emitted by radioactive substances with powerful penetrating properties.
  30. Neutron Radiation
    Powerful radiation with penetrating properties between that of Beta and Gamma
  31. Factors Affecting Exposure to Radiation
    • Duration of exposure
    • Distance from the source
    • Shielding from the source
  32. Rad
    Basic unit of absorbed radiation dose
  33. Gray
    A unit of absorbed radiation equal to 100 rads
  34. Supraglottic
    Referring to the upper airway
  35. Subglottic
    Referring to the lower airway
  36. Superficial Burn
    A burn the involves only the epidermis. Reddening of the skin. AKA 1st degree
  37. Partial Thickness Burn
    Burn in which the epidermis is burned through and the dermis is damaged. Redness and blistering. AKA 2nd degree
  38. Full Thickness Burn
    Burn that damages all layers of skin. Areas of white/dry skin. AKA 3rd degree
  39. Body Surface Area (BSA)
    Amount of a patient's body area in a percentage. Usually related to extent of burn injury
  40. Rule of Nines
    Method of estimating amount of body surface burned by a division of the body into regions each worth 9% about
  41. Rule of Palms
    Method of estimating the amount of body surface area burned that sizes the area burned to the patient's palm size
  42. Eschar
    Hard, leathery layer of a deep full thickness burn. Consists of dead and denatured skin
  43. Parkland Formula
    • Fluid resusitation over the next 24 hours
    • 4 mL x Kg x BSA burned = fluid over 24 hours
  44. Initial Fluid Bolus
    0.25 mL x Kg x BSA Burned = initial bolus
  45. Blepharospasm
    Twitching of the eyelids