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What are the 7 things that affect our food choices?
- 1. taste & enjoyment
- 2. culture & environment
- 3. social reasons & trends
- 4. weight, body image, health benefits
- 5. advertising
- 6. time, convience, cost
- 7. habits/emotions
Name the 6 nutrients...
Which nutrients are energy yeilding and what are their caloric values?
- carbohydrates - 4 kcals
- fats (lipids) - 4 kcals
- proteins - 9 kcals
- alcohol (not a nutrient) - 7 kcals
What are essential nutrients?
- must be consumed by food
- cannot be made in sufficient amounts to meet the body's needs
What are non-nutrients?
- nondigestible fiber
- chemicals added by manufactures to: enhance color, flavor, add texture, extend shelf life
What are macronutrients?
- body needs them in large amounts
- include energy (carbs, lipids, proteins, water)
What are micronutrients?
- body needs in smaller amounts
- vitamins & minerals - no energy
In nutritional research what are the types of studies?
- laboratory experiment
- epidemiological research
- double-blind placebo-controlled study
What are placebos?
inactive substance, sugar pill, given to a control group during an experiment
What is a control?
A group that does not receive a treatment and given the placebo
What is the double-blind placebo control?
experimental study where no one knows who is receiving the treatment or placebo
How do you find good quality information for a nutrition research?
conduct a consensus
What does a nutritional assessment include?
examining a patient's health and diet history
What are national survey's used for?
to assess the health and nutritional status of Americans
What is the major factor that is associated with chronic illness and the relationship to the food we eat, our activity level, and other lifestyle habits?
What are the 5 principles of healthy eating?
- calorie control
What is nutrient density?
- measurement of nutrients in food compared with kilocalorie content
- these foods are high in nutrients (vitamins) and low in kilocalories (energy)
What is energy density?
measurement of kilocalories in food compared with weight of the food
What is DRI stand for?
Dietary reference intake
How are the requirements set for RDA (recommended dietary allowance)?
- each nutrient should meet needs of 97-98% of individuals in gender and age groups
- higher than EARS
- not avail. for all nutrients
How are requirements set for EAR (estimated average requirements)?
- meet needs of 50% of Americans by age and gender
- if individual is at risk of a deficiency
- calculates RDAs
How are the requirements set for AIs (adequate intakes)?
- estimate based on jugdement of the FNB members
- next best scientific estimate of amt of nutrients
How are requirements set for ULs (tolerable upper intake level)?
highest amt of nutrients that's unlikely to cause harm if consumed daily
How are requirements set for AMDR (acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges)?
- ensure intake of nutrients is adequate and proportionate to physiological needs...
- carbs 45-65% of daily kcals
- fats 20-35% of daily kcals
- proteins 10-35% of daily kcals
How are the recommendations listed for RDAs, EARs, AIs, ULs and AMDR related and how are they used to evaluate intake?
help individuals determine daily nutrient needs to maintain good health, prevent chronic diseases, and avoid unhealthy excesses
What are the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
nutritional goals for Americans established by scientists
What is the Food Guide Pyramid?
graphics used to summarized guidelines of healthy eating
What are the 2005 Dietary Guidelines?
- designed to help individuals over age 2:
- improve quality of diet
- lower the risk of chronic disease and unhealthy conditions
What are the 9 categories in the 2005 dietary guidelines?
- adequate nutrients withing calorie needs
- weight management
- physical activity
- food groups to encourage
- sodium and potassium
- alcoholic beverages
- food safety