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-dilation of the calices (due to obstruction or infection).
-pertaining to a calix (collecting cup of reual pelvis).
-inflammation of the urinary bladder.
-surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder.
-artifical opening from the bladder thru abdominal wall, permitting drainage of urine.
glomerular capsule (Bowman's capsule)
-is a cup-like sac at the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron in the mammalian kidney that performs the first step in the filtration of blood to form urine.
-A cup-shaped structure with a thin double membrane surrounding the glomerulus of each nephron
-is a narrowing of the opening of the urethra, the tube through which urine leaves the body.
-is a narrowing (stenosis) of the opening of the urethra at the external meatus, thus constricting the opening through which urine leaves the body from the urinary bladder.
-near the kidney.
-refers to damage to or disease of the kidney.
-(also called floating kidney or renal ptosis) is an abnormal condition in which the kidney drops down into the pelvis when the patient stands
-floating or hypermobile kidney; downward displacement of a kidney.
-incision of the kidney for removal of calculi.
-is distension and dilation of the renal pelvis calyces, usually caused by obstruction of the free flow of urine from the kidney
-is distention (dilation) of the kidney with urine, caused by backward pressure on the kidney when the flow of urine is obstructed.
-is a procedure in which a catheter (plastic tube) is inserted through the skin and into the kidney to drain it of.
-is an artificial opening created between the kidney and the skin which allows for the drainage of urine directly from the upper part of the urinary system (renal pelvis).
-incision of the renal pelvis for removal of calculi.
-pyelo means renal pelvis; lithotomy means removal of stone.
-or ischaemia, also called nephric ischemia is the deficiency of blood in one or both kidneys, or nephrons, usually due to functional constriction or actual obstruction of a blood vessel.
-is a type of pain commonly caused by kidney stones.
-Kidney stone pain is when the stone passes through the ureter.
-is a condition of inflammation of the trigone region of the bladder.
-plastic surgery of a ureter.
-is an abnormal narrowing of the tube that carries urine out of the body from the bladder (urethra).
- -is a narrowing of the urethra caused by injury or disease such as urinary tract infections or other forms of
-within the urinary bladder.
-(VUR) is an abnormal movement of urine from the bladder into ureters or kidneys.
-can cause swelling in the ureter and kidney.
al-bu-mi-nu-ri-a [al-byoo-muh-noo r-ee-uh]
-is a pathological condition wherein albumin is present in the urine. It is a type of proteinuria.
-is having too much protein in the urine. This is sometimes referred to as “microalbuminuria".
-is a condition where the patient's blood contains uncommon levels of urea, creatinine, and other compounds rich in nitrogen.
-is a medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of nitrogen
-containing compounds, such as urea, creatinine, various body waste compounds, and other nitrogen
-rich compounds in the blood. It is largely related to insufficient filtering of blood by the kidneys.
bac-te-ri-u-ri-a [bak-teer-ee-yoo r-ee-uh]
-the presence of bacteria in the urine.
-is a condition in which larger than normal numbers of bacteria are present in the urine but symptoms do not result.
-chronic excessive thirst and fluid intake.
-is higher-than-normal levels of potassium in the blood.
-is a condition in which levels of ketones (ketone bodies) in the blood are elevated.
-A condition in which abnormally high amounts of ketone bodies (a byproduct of the breakdown of cells) are present in the urine.
-The process of forming a kidney stone, a stone in the kidney (or lower down in the urinary tract).
-is a metabolic condition in which there is not enough sodium (salt) in the body fluids outside the cells.
-electrolyte disturbance in which the sodium concentration in the serum is lower than normal.
-is a condition in which you wake up during the night because you have to urinate.
-also called nycturia, is the need to get up in the night to urinate.
ol-i-gu-ri-a [ol-i-gyoo r-ee-uh]
-diminished urine production and excretion in relation to fluid intake.
-is the low output of urine, It is clinically classified as an output below 400 ml/day. The decreased output of urine may be a sign of dehydration.
-(EPO): An important hormone produced by the kidney that promotes the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow.
-pus in the urine.
-Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the non-invasive treatment of kidney stones (urinary calculosis) and biliary calculi (stones in the gallbladder or in the liver) using an acoustic pulse.
-is a medical procedure that uses shock waves to break up stones in the kidney, bladder, or ureter (tube that carries urine from your kidneys to your bladder).
-also uraemia n. A toxic condition resulting from kidney disease in which there is retention in the bloodstream of waste products normally.
-or uraemia (see spelling differences) is a term used to loosely describe the illness accompanying kidney failure (also called renal failure), in particular the nitrogenous waste products associated with the failure of this organ.
-Uremia is a clinical syndrome associated with fluid, electrolyte, and hormone imbalances and metabolic abnormalities.
-an inability to control urination.
-The increased formation of urine by the kidney
-Also known as arginine vasopressin, a human hormone that is mainly released when the body is low on water.
-Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) causes the kidneys to conserve water by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume.
-It also has various functions in the brain and blood vessels.
-ADH is a 9-amino acid peptide that is produced by specialized nerve cells in the hypothalamus and transported in the bloodstream to the posterior pituitary gland.
-Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): A relatively small (peptide) molecule that is released by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain after being made nearby (in the hypothalamus).
-ADH has an antidiuretic action that prevents the production of dilute urine (and so is antidiuretic).
-ADH also can stimulate contraction of arteries and capillaries. ADH is also known as vasopressin.
urinary incontinence (UI)
-is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting.
-(UI) is any involuntary leakage of urine. It is a common and distressing problem, which may have a profound impact on quality of life.
-is the inability to empty the bladder.
-also known as ischuria, is a lack of ability to urinate. It is a common complication of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
-Painful or difficult urination due to bacterial infection.
-complete suppression of urine formation and excretion.
-means nonpassage of urine, in practice is defined as passage of less than 50 milliliters of urine in a day.
he-ma-tu-ri-a [hee-muh-too r-ee-uh]
-or haematuria, is the presence of red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the urine.
-It may be idiopathic and/or benign, or it can be a sign that there is a kidney stone or a tumor in the urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, prostate, and urethra), ranging from trivial to lethal.
-If white blood cells are found in addition to red blood cells, then it is a signal of urinary tract infection.
-is a condition in which glucose or simple sugar is detected in the urine despite of normal blood sugar level.
- -excessive secretion of urine.
- -defined as a urine output exceeding 3 L/day in adults and 2 L/m2 in children.
-Inflammation of the glomeruli within the kidney.
Symptoms: Albuminuria, edema, hypertension.
in-ter-sti-tial [in-ter-stish-uh l]
-Inflammation of the connective tissue that lies between the renal tubules.
-Kidney stones (renal calculi)
nephrotic syndrome (nephrosis)
-Group of clinical signs and symptoms caused by excessive protein loss in urine.
Symptoms: edema, hypoalbuminemia
polycystic kidney disease (PKD)
-Multiple fluid-filled sacs (cysts) within and on the kidneys.
-Inflammation of the lining of the renal pelvis and renal parenchyma.
renal cell carcinoma (hypernephroma)
-Cancerous tumor of the kidney in adulthood.
-Kidney decreases excretion of wastes as a result of impaired filtration function.
-High blood pressure resulting from kidney disease.
-Malignant tumor of the kidney occurring in childhood.
-Malignant tumor of the urinary bladder.
-Antidiuretic hormone is not secreted adequately, or the kidney is resistant to its effect.
-Insulin is not secreted adequately or not used properly in the body.
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
-Measurement of urea levels in blood.
-Measurement of the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney.
-X-ray images show multiple cross-sectional and other views of organs and tissues.
kidneys, ureters, and bladder (KUB)
-X-ray examination (without contrast) of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
-X-ray examination (with contrast) of the blood vessels of the kidney.
retrograde pyelogram (RP)
-X-ray imaging of the renal pelvis and ureters after injection of contrast through a urinary catheter into the ureters from the bladder.
voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)
-X-ray record (with contrast) of the urinary bladder and urethra obtained while the patient is voiding.
-Imaging of urinary tract structures using high-frequency sound waves.
-Images of the kidney after injecting a radioactive substance (radioisotope) into the bloodstream.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
-Changing magnetic field produces images of the kidney and surrounding structures in three planes of the body.
-Direct visualization of the urethra and urinary bladder with an endoscope (cystoscope).
-Process of separating nitrogenous waste materials from the blood.
- Two methods:
- 1. Hemodialysis (HD)
- 2. Peritoneal dialysis (PD)
-Urinary tract stones are crushed.
-Dilation of narrowed areas in renal arteries.
-Removal of kidney tissue for microscopic examination.
-Surgical transfer of a kidney from a donor to a recipient.
-Passage of a flexible, tubular instrument through the urethra into the urinary bladder.