Civilization Since 1660 Honors
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What was the Tokugawa Shogunate?
Centralization of Authority in Japan
How was power to the Shogun given in the Tokugawa Period?
By lineage, not batle
What were relations with Japan & Europe like in the late 1600's?
Different countries of Europe want to truade with Japan
What does Japanese contact with Europe bring to Japan?
Gunpowder weapons (cannon, gun)
What does contact with Europe help Japan do?
Consolidate all of the three Japan powers
What did the arrival of the Portuguese and the Jesuits do?
Convert a few thousand Japanese into Christians in only a few years
Why didn't the Shogun wants Japs to be Christians?
Fear they would be loyal to a foreign leader and not the emperor
What happens in 1637 in response to Shoguns anger at Christianity? What's the result?
Peasant Rebellion - Shogun uses this to run all Jesuits out of Japan and cut off ties with the world and isolate Japan
How severe was Japan's isolation?
Only one ship from the Netherlands came to Japan, and only once a year, and it kept diplomatic ties with China & Asia, if Japs left Japan they were killed
How did the isolation of Japan effect Japan socially and economically?
Socially, Japan developed more scholarly and had more merchants - Economically, commerce rise was fierce
With rise of merchant power, what happens to power and social class in Japan?
Shoguns are indebted to merchants, merchants use rising power to challenge the Samurais, social classes began to blur
How did some Shoguns and Samurai get out of debt?
By selling their title of nobility
Is Japan urban or rural during isolation? Why?
People migrate from the country to the city as cities grow - cities offer more entertainment and comfort - middle class can patronize the arts - prostitution
What did the Legacy of Tokugawa do?
Made leaps in utilizing Japan, efficient government, great security, weakening of classes and rise of one people, capitalistic economy
When did Japan finally come out of isolation? How did it work?
During the era of Tokugawa - they were able to assert themselves as one power
How were the tributaries of Korea & Vietnam influenced?
What religion did Korea & Vietnam accept?
Buddhism & Confucion
What Chinese ideas did Korea & Vietnam accept?
Cosmic ideas and human relationships
What set Korea & Vietnam apart from China?
They recognized their differences and sought out individuality by speaking different languages
What was the Korea & Choson Dynasty like for Korea?
a "Renaissance" of that time with arts and letters - a reviving of Korean culture
What was the heigherarchy of Korea?
- Yangban (elites)
- Slaves (1/3 of population)
What happens to the high rising Korea in the late 1500's?
Japan invades, which causes China to start war - this Ch/Jap war was held in Korea
What did the war do to Korea?
Economy crashed, severe killing, proopery damage, decline of Korea, famine
How long does the decline of Korea last?
Never bounced back, 20th century
What were the Vietnam Dynasties?
- Ly (1002-1225)
- Tran (1225-1400)
- Nguyen (1802-1880)
What happens to Vietnam in the 19th century?
France moves into Vietnam and colonizes it until Civil War (then the US became involved)
When did the rise of Constitutionalism and Absolutism happen?
1600 - 1740
What was the nature of Europe durning the rise of Const. & Abso.
transition - emergence of influential states: england, france, russia, austria, and prussia
What kind of political model did England have? France?
Parliamentary Monarchy - Absolutism
How did a parliamentary monarchy work?
shared powers between monarch and some form of legislature
Englands constitution is what?
unwritten, built on centuries of tradition
how does an absolute monarchy work?
all power is in the king, who had divine rights... given by God
Do parliamentary monarchs believe in divine rights?
no, they share state and king power
England is not involved with what? France?
foreign affairs, stay internal - directly involved
James I was from where? What was his religion? What happens during his reign? Who is his son?
Scotland - Protestant - refuses to reform englands church to protestant so he can rule and be the most authoritative, he tries to renew laws to get money from parliament - Charles I
Who is Charles I?
ruler of england after James I - he shuts down parliament when they refuse to give him money
Who led the English Civil War?
How does Oliver Cromwell win? What was his reign like?
After Charles starts war on Parliament, Cromwell beat the kings army and beheaded Charles I (and Charles II), he takes over and starts a Republic (worse rule than the James/Charles reign)
Charles II was like what?
converted to catholicism while exiled in France, so he paves way for catholic James II in his re-reign
Mary & William do what to James II?
dethrone him, run him out of country, take over and begin the Glorious Revolution
Mary & William began what english tradition?
all protestant leaders after their decent
George I had what difficulties while ruling England? so he does what?
- he didnt speak english
- he ruled germany, too
- james edward came to retake throne
gives robert walpole the position of prime minister to run affairs on his behalf
What was Robert Walpole's Tenure?
let sleeping does lie
Louis XIII had who mentor him? What was this person like?
Cardinal Richeleiu - french, loyal catholic, wanted to enhance church and make france a dominant country
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