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-is a special prenatal test given to some pregnant women to test for birth defects.
-is a test during pregnancy that removes a small amount of fluid from the sac around the baby to look for birth defects and chromosome problems.
-is a clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds the unborn baby (fetus) during pregnancy.
-or liquor amnii is the nourishing and protecting liquid contained by the amniotic sac of a pregnant woman.
-is an inflammatory condition infecting the endometrium (mucous lining) of the uterine cervical canal.
-Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the uterine.
-inflammation of the lining of the uterine cervix
-of, relating to, or being part of the chorion.
-the outermost of the two membranes that completely envelop a fetus
-is a common gynecology follow-up for abnormal Pap smears.
-is a way for your doctor to use a special magnifying device to look at your vulva, vagina, and cervix.
-is a procedure that checks for abnormal fluid in the space just behind the vagina (cul-de-sac).
- -is a procedure in which peritoneal fluid is obtained from the cul-de-sac(behind the vagina) of a female
-refers to the extraction of fluid from the rectouterine pouch posterior to the vagina through a needle.
-is a surgical incision through the perineum made to enlarge the vagina and assist childbirth.
-procedure where an incision is made between the vagina and anus to assist in vaginal birth.(This area is called the perineum.)
-or galactorrhoea is the spontaneous flow of milk from the breast, unassociated with childbirth or nursing.
-is the development of abnormally large breasts in males. It is related to the excess growth of breast tissue
-is an operation to remove a woman's uterus. The uterus is the place where a baby grows when a woman is pregnant.
-is a thin telescope that is inserted through the cervix into the uterus.
-is the inspection of the uterine cavity by endoscopy with access through the cervix.
-the secretion of milk from the mammary glands, the process of providing that milk to the young, and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.
-pertaining to the mammary gland, or breast.
-or mammaplasty can refer to the surgical procedure to insert cheek implants or augmentation mammoplasty, an enlarging of the breasts via implants.
-is the inflammation of breast tissue.
-the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely.
-is the absence of menstrual bleeding and may be primary or secondary.
-# Primary amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual bleeding and secondary sexual characteristics (for example, breast development and pubic hair) in a girl by age 14 years or the absence of menstrual bleeding with normal development of secondary sexual characteristics in a girl by age 16 years.
-Secondary amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual bleeding in awoman who had been menstruating but later stops menstruating for 3 or more months in the absence of pregnancy, lactation (the ability to breastfeed), cycle suppression with systemic hormonal contraceptive (birth control) pills, or menopause.
-(or oligomenorrhoea)-is infrequent (or, in occasional usage, very light) menstruation.
-is an abnormally heavy and prolonged menstrual period at regular intervals.
-is uterine bleeding at irregular intervals, particularly between the expected menstrual periods.
-can be defined as 'off schedule' bleeding.
-is a condition in which prolonged or excessive uterine bleeding occurs irregularly and more frequently than normal.
-is the middle layer of the uterine wall consisting of smooth muscle cells and supporting stromal and vascular tissue.
-The muscular outer layer of the uterus.
-sometimes also fibroidectomy, refers to the surgical removal of uterine leiomyomas, also known as fibroids.
-is the surgical removal of fibroids from the uterus. It allows the uterus to be left in place and preserves fertility.
-Of or relating to newborn infants or an infant.
ob-stet-rics [uh b-ste-triks]
-is the surgical specialty dealing with the care of women and their children during pregnancy.
-or oögenesis is the creation of an ovum (egg cell). It is the female form of gametogenesis. The male equivalent is spermatogenesis.
- -or ovocyte, or rarely ocyte, is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction.
- -an egg before maturation
- -is the surgical removal of an ovary or ovaries.
- -The surgery is also called ovariectomy
-(plural ova, from the Latin word ovum meaning egg or egg cell)
-is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete.
-is an ovum-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system.
-An anovulatory cycle is a menstrual cycle during which the ovaries do not release an oocyte. Therefore, ovulation does not take place.
-suture of the perineum. -is the surgical repair of the perineum, usually after an episiotomy has been made to assist the delivery of a baby
-is an inflammation of the ovaries.
-It is often seen in combination with salpingitis (inflammation of the fallopian tubes).
-is the removal of one or both of a woman's fallopian tubes, the tubes through which an egg travels from the ovary to the uterus.
-is falling or sliding of the uterus from its normal position in the pelvic cavity into the vaginal canal.
-is a median slit below and behind the opening of the urethra; its size varies inversely with that of the hymen.
-is an inflammation of the vagina.
-It can result in discharge, itching and pain, and is often associated with an irritation or infection of the vulva.
-It is usually due to infection.
-The most common types of vaginitis are yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis.
-is inflammation or infection of the vulva and vagina.
-is an inflammation of all or part of the external vulva (labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and/or entrance to the vagina) and the vagina.
-is the first menstrual cycle, or first menstrual bleeding, in female human beings.
-or false pregnancy, involves a constellation of symptoms that fool women and doctors alike.
-or gravida 1 is a woman who is pregnant for the first time.
- -A woman who is pregnant for the first time.
- Bearing young for the first time.
-a thick, whitish or yellowish vaginal discharge. -or vaginal discharge during pregnancy.
-Leukorrhea is caused by increased secretions from thevaginal walls and cervical glands.
-The flow of blood at menstruation.
-a collection of pus in a uterine tube.
-(antonym eutocia) is an abnormal or difficult childbirth or labour.
-is a process by which a breech baby can sometimes be turned from buttocks or foot first to head first.
-is painful sexual intercourse, due to medical or psychological causes.
-is an inflammation or irritation of the lining of the uterus (the endometrium).
-Symptoms: Abdominal distention or swelling; Abnormal vaginal bleeding; Abnormal vaginal discharge.
involution of the uterus
-the process by which the uterus attempts to return to its prepregnancy size and condition.
-involves uterine contraction, autolysis of myometrial cells, and epithelial regeneration and proliferation.
-(IUD) is a form of birth control; it is an object, placed in the uterus, to prevent pregnancy.
-A woman who has had 2 or more pregnancies resulting in potentially viable offspring.
-a woman who is pregnant and has been pregnant at least twice before.
-A woman who has never conceived a child.
-A woman who has never given birth.
-Existing or occurring before birth.
- -A woman who is giving birth for the first time.
- -A woman who is pregnant for the first time.
-the tipping backward of an entire organ or part.
- -a turning back; a turning or tilting backward (of an organ or part), esp. of the uterus or
carcinoma of the cervix
-Malignant cells within the cervix (cervical cancer).
human papillomavirus (HPV)
- *dysplasia (abnormal cell growth)
- *carcinoma in situ (CIS), a localized form of cancer
- Other Risk Factors:
- *cigarette smoking
- *multiple sexual partners
- *weak immune system
Inflammation of the cervix.
- *Chlamydia trachomatis
- *Neisseria gonorrhaeae
- *cervical erosions, ulcerations
- *leukorrhea (clear, white, or yellow pus-filled vaginal discharge)
carcinoma of the endometrium (endometrial cancer)
-Malignant tumor of the uterus (adenocarcinoma).
- common sign:
- *postmenopausal bleeding.
- Cause:*exposed to high levels of estrogen (pills, obesity)
-Endometrial tissue located outside the uterus.
- *proliferation (growth) of bits of menstrual endometrium that have passed backward thru the lumen (opening) of the fallopian tube and into the peritoneal cavity.
- *inflammation and scar tissue
- *dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, infertility
- *dyspareunia (painful intercourse)
-Benign tumors in the uterus.
- *ALso called leiomyomata or leiomyomas
- (lei/o = smooth, my/o = muscles, -oma = tumor)
- *fibroids grow too large
- *pelvic pain
-Malignant tumor of the ovary
-Collections of fluid within a sac (cyst) in the ovary.
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
-Inflammation and infection of organs in the pelvic region; salpingitis, oophoritis, endometritis, endocervicitis.
- *bacterial infections (gonorrhea, chlamydia).
- *foul-smelling vaginal discharge
- *abdominal pain (LLQ, RLQ)
- *tenderness to palpation of the cervix.
carcinoma of the breast (breast cancer)
-Malignant tumor of the breast (arising from milk glands and ducts).
-Numerous small sacs of fibrous connective tissue and fluid in the breast.
- *nodular (lumpy) consistency of the breast
- *premenstrual tenderness & fullness of the breast.
-Premature separation of the implanted placenta.
- *trauma (fall)
- *secondary to vascular insufficiency (hypertension or preeclampsia)
- *sudden searing (burning) abdominal pain
-Malignant tumor of the placenta
- *vaginal bleeding
- *a positive result on a pregnancy test
- *enlarged ovaries on examination
-Implantation of the fertilized egg in any site other than the normal uterine location.
-More than one fetus inside the uterus.
- *vitro fertilization procedures
- High Risk for:
- *preterm delivery, high blood pressure
- *growth restriction, diabetes
-Implantation of the placenta over the cervical opening or in the lower region of the uterus.
- Signs & Symptoms:
- *painless bleeding, hemorrhage, premature labor
-Abnormal condition associated with pregnancy, marked by high blood pressure, proteinuria, edema, and headache.
-Chromosomal abnormality (trisomy 21) results in mental retardation, retarded growth, a flat face with a short nose, low-set ears, and slanted eyes.
-Hemolytic disease in the newborn (HND) caused by a blood group (Rh factor) incompatibility between the mother and the fetus.
hyaline membrane disease
-Acute lung disease commonly seen in the premature newborn.
*Also called respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn (RDS)
- deficiency of surfactant, a protein necessary for proper lung function.
-Accumulation of fluid in the spaces of the brain.
- *problem in the circulation of fluid within the brain and spinal cord, result in fluid accumulation.
meconium aspiration syndrome
-Abnormal inhalation of meconium (first stool of the fetus; thick, sticky, greenish to black substance) produces by a fetus or newborn.
-Narrowing of the opening of the stomach to the duodenum.
-Microscopic examination of stained cells removed from the vagina and cervix.
-Blood or urine test to detect the presence of hCG.
-X-ray imaging of the uterus and fallopian tubes after injection of contrast material.
-X-ray imaging of the breast
breast ultrasound imaging and breast MRI
-Technologies using sound waves and magnetic waves to create images of breast tissue.
-Recording images of sound waves as they bounce off organs in the pelvic region.
- *fetal size, fetal maturity, organ development
- *fetal and placental position.
-Withdrawal of fluid from a cavity or sac with an instrument using suction.
-Destruction of tissue by burning
- Chemicals Used:
- *silver nitrate, dry ice, electrically heated instrument.
- *cervical dysplasia
- *cervical erosion
-Visual exmination of the vagina and cervix using a colposcope.
-Removal of a cone-shaped section (cone biopsy) of the cervix.
-Use of cold temperatures to destroy tissue.
- Chemicals Used:
- *liquid nitrogen
-Needle aspiration of fluid from the cul-de-sac.
dilation (dilatation) and curettage (D&C)
-Widening the cervix and scraping off the endometrial lining of the uterus.
-Removal of internal organs within a cavity.
*Pelvic exenteration, removal of the organs and adjacent structures of the pelvis.
-Visual examination of the abdominal cavity using an endoscope (laparoscope).
*a form of minimally invasive surgery (MIS).
-Blocking the fallopian tubes to prevent fertilization from occurring.
-Spontaneous or induced termination of pregnancy before the embryo or fetus can exist on its own.
-Needle puncture of the amniotic sac to withdraw amniotic fluid for analysis.
- Exam for:
- *fetal chromosomes
- *concentrations of proteins & bilirubin
- *fetal maturation.
-Surgical incision of the abdominal wall and uterus to deliver a fetus.
chorionic villus smapling (CVS)
-Sampling of placental tissues (chorionic villi) for prenatal diagnosis.
-Continuous recording of the fetal heart rate and maternal uterine contractions to reduce fetal distress during labor.
in vitro fertilization (IVF)
-Egg and sperm cells are combined outside the body in a laboratory dish (in vitro) to facilitate fertilization.
**After an incubation period of 48-72hrs, the fertilized ova are injected into the uterus thru the cervix.
-Measurement of the dimensions of the maternal pelvis.
- **helps determine if the mother's pelvis will allow passage of the fetus thru the birth canal.
- **IMPORTANT during protracted labor or with breech presentation.