bio ch 2 vocab
Card Set Information
bio ch 2 vocab
molecules tending to raise the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution and to lower its pH numerically.
one of the four nitrogen bases in nucleotides composing the structure of DNA and RNA.
ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
nucleotide with two phosphate groups and become ATP.
nucleotide with two phosphate groups that can accept another phosphate group and become ATP.
smallest particle of an element that displays the properties of the element.
mass of an atom equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons with the nucleus.
number of protons within the nucleus of an atom
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
nucleotide with three phosphate groups. the breakdown of ATP into ADP and P makes energy available for energy - requiring processes in cells.
molecules tending to lower the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution and raise the pH numerically.
substance or group of substances that tend to resist pH changes of a solution, thus stabilizing its relative acidity and basicity.
the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 ^degree C.
class of organic compounds that includes monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
polysaccharide that is the major complex carbohydrate in plant cell walls.
complementary paired bases
Hydrogen bonding between particular bases;
in DNA thymine (T) pairs with adenine (A),
and guanine (G) pairs with cytosine (C);
in RNA, uracil (U) pairs with A,
and G pairs with C.
substance having two or more different elements united chemically in a fixed ratio.
chemical bond in which atoms share one pair of electrons.
one of four nitrogen bases in nucleotides composing the structure of DNA and RNA.
chemical reaction resulting in a covalent bond with the accompanying loss of a water molecule
loss of normal shape by an enzyme so that it no longer functions; caused by a less than optimal pH or temperature.
sugar that contains two units of a monosaccharide (ex: maltose)
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
nucleic acid polymer produced from covalent bonding of nucleotide monomers that contain the sugar deoxyribose; the genetic material of nearly all organisms.
negative subatomic particle, moving about in an energy level around the nucleus of an atom.
substance that cannot be broken down into substances with different properties; composed of only one type of atom.
breaking up of fat globules into smaller droplets by the action of bile salts or any other emulsifier.
organic molecule that contains glycerol and fatty acids; found in adipose tissue.
molecule that contains a hydrocarbon chain and ends with an acid group/
six-carbon sugar that organisms degrade as a source of energy during cellular respiration
storage polysaccharide composed of glucose molecules joined in a linear fashion but having numerous branches.
one of four nitrogen-containing bases in nucleotides composing the structure of DNA and RNA; pairs with cytosine.
iron-containing pigment in red blood cells that combines with and transports oxygen.
weak bond that arises between a slightly positive hydrogen atom of one molecule and a slightly negative atom of another, or between parts of the same molecule.
splitting of a compound by the addition of water, with the H+ being incorporated in one fragment and the OH- in another.
type of molecule that interacts with water by dissolving in water and/or foaming hydrogen bonds with water molecules.
type of molecule that does not interact with water because it is nonpolar.
charged particle that carries a negative or positive charge.
chemical bond in which ions are attracted to one another by opposite charges.
one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but a different atomic mass due to the number of neurons.
class of organic compounds that tends to be soluble only in nonpolar solvents, such as alcohol; includes fats and oils.
extremely large biological molecule; refers specifically to proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, lipids, and complexes of these.
sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus.
the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) in the nucleus of an atom.
anything that takes up space and has mass
a unit of scientific measurement for atoms, ions, and molecules.
union of two or more atoms of the same element; also, the smallest part of a compound that retains the properties of the compound.
simple sugar; a carbohydrate that cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis (ex: glucose)
neutral subatomic particle, located in the nucleus and having a weight of approximately one atomic mass unit.
monomer of DNA and RNA consisting of a 5-carbon sugar bonded to a nitrogen-containing base and a phosphate group.
membrane bounded organelle that contains chromosomes and controls the structure and function of the cell.
substance, usually of plant origin and liquid at room temperature, formed when a glycerol molecule reacts with three fatty acid molecules.
pathway in which electrons travel around the nucleus of an atom.
molecule that always contains carbon and hydrogen, and often contains oxygen as well; organic molecules are associated with living things.
type of molecule that contains carbon and hydrogen - and often contains oxygen also.
five-carbon sugar. deoxyribose is the pentose sugar found in DNA; ribose is a pentose sugar found in RNA.
type of covalent bond that joins two amino acids.
measurement scale for hydrogen ion concentration
molecule that forms the bilayer of the cell's membranes; has a polar, hydrophilic head bonded to two nonpolar, hydrophobic tails.
combination of atoms in which the electrical charge is not distributed symmetrically.
polymer of many amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
polymer made from sugar monomers; the polysaccharides starch and glycogen are polymers of glucose monomers.
molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides
positive subatomic particle, located in the nucleus and having a weight of approximately one atomic mass unit.
unstable form of an atom that spontaneously emits radiation in the form of radioactive particles or radiant energy.
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
nucleic acid produced from covalent bonding of nucleotide monomers that contain the sugar ribose; occurs in three forms: messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA.
saturated fatty acid
fatty-acid molecule that lacks double bonds between the atoms of its carbon chain
storage polysaccharide found in plants that is composed of glucose molecules joined in a linear fashion with few side chains.
type of lipid molecule having a complex of four carbon rings; examples are cholesterol, progesterone, and testosterone.
one of four nitrogen containing bases in nucleotides composing the structure of DNA; pairs with adenine.
substance having an attached radioisotope that allows a researcher to track its whereabouts in a biological system.
fats, which occur naturally in meat and dairy products of ruminants, that are also industrially created through partial hydrogenation of plant oils and animal fats.
neutral fat composed of glycerol and three fatty acids.
unsaturated fatty acid
fatty-acid molecule that has one or more double bonds between the atoms of its carbon chain.
the base in RNA that replaces thymine found in DNA; pairs with adenine.