Biosphere

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
62731
Filename:
Biosphere
Updated:
2011-01-29 09:18:39
Tags:
Biology Biosphere
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Description:
Standard grade Biology unit - the Biosphere
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  1. What is an Ecosystem made up of?
    Living and non-living things.
  2. What is a habitat?
    The place where an organism lives
  3. What is a community?
    All the plants, animals and micro-organisms living in a habitat.
  4. What is population?
    All the living organisms of one type.
  5. What is a biotic factor? Give three examples
    A biotic factor is a living factor. Examples include food, disease and predators
  6. What is an abiotic factor? Give three examples
    An abiotic factor is a non-living factor. Examples include temperature, light intensity, pH and moisture.
  7. What is abundance?
    Abundance of an organism is the measure of the extent to which it appears in an environment.
  8. What can be used to sample a soil/leaf ecosystem?
    A pitfall trap
  9. What are the problems that can occur with pitfall traps?
    • The numbers and types of organisms may not be representative of the ecosystem as a whole
    • Birds may eat the trapped animals
    • Some animals may eat others
  10. What can be used to sample a tree ecosystem?
    A beating tray and stick
  11. What are the problems that can occur with a beating tray and stick?
    • The numbers and types of organisms may not be representative of the ecosystem as a whole
    • Some organisms may miss the tray or drop off the edges or fly away
    • Some animals may not be dislodged by beating
  12. What can be used to sample a fresh water pond ecosystem?
    A sweep net
  13. What are the problems that can occur with a sweep net?
    • The numbers and types of organisms may not be representative of the ecosystem as a whole
    • Small animals may escape through the holes in the net
    • When investigating the bottom of the pond some of the animals in the net may have been caught from the water near the surface as the net passed through
  14. What are paired or branched statement keys used for?
    To identify organisms
  15. What is a producer?
    An organism that can make its own food (eg plants)
  16. What is a consumer?
    An organism that must consume another organism for food (eg animals)
  17. Energy is _______ from the food chain at each stage?
    lost
  18. How can energy be lost?
    • In undigested food
    • Due to movement
    • Lost as heat
  19. Name four factors that limit the population.
    • Predators
    • Disease
    • Limited food
    • Lack of space
  20. What does the growth of a population depend on?
    Birth and death rates
  21. Bacteria and fungi ________ dead plants and animals?
    decompose
  22. What does nitrogen fixing mean?
    Converting nitrogen gas to nitrate
  23. What do nitrifying bacteria do?
    They convert the dead remain of plants and animals ---> ammonium compounds ---> nitrITES ---> nitrATES
  24. As you move along the food chain the size of the organism often ________?
    increases
  25. A pyramid of numbers represents the ________ of all organisms at each feeding level?
    number
  26. A pyramid of biomass represents the _____ of all organisms at each feeding level?
    mass
  27. What does the nitrogen cycle show?
    How nitrogen is obtained by plants and animals.
  28. What is pollution?
    A substance that is harmful to animal or plant
  29. Name three main sources of pollution
    • Industry
    • Agriculture
    • Domestic
  30. Give examples of ways to help control pollution
    • Using unleaded petrol
    • Treating sewage
  31. What are the effects of acid rain?
    • Trees take in acid rain through their roots - destroying them
    • Buildings are destroyed
    • The pH of lochs drop, killing animals living there
  32. Bacteria can feed on waste and multiply quickly. What effect does this have on the aquatic life in the river?
    The bacteria use all the oxygen so the fish and other aquatic life may suffocate.
  33. Give examples of two indicator species that are found in water with low oxygen levels.
    • Blood worm
    • Sludgeworm
  34. What does the presence or absence of an indicator species tell us?
    How polluted an environment is
  35. What does the poor management of resources lead to?
    The disruption or destruction of many habitats
  36. Give two examples of poor management of resources
    • Desrtuction of the rainforest
    • Overfishing

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