Path I

Card Set Information

Author:
emz427
ID:
62735
Filename:
Path I
Updated:
2011-01-29 09:30:19
Tags:
pathology
Folders:

Description:
degeneration and necrosis
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  1. Degeneration
    (definition)
    reversible retrogressive state in which cells/tissues adjust to sublethal conditions and demonstrate corresponding (gradation) losses of function, altered metabolism, and morphological changes
  2. Degeneration
    (occurrence)
    depends on type
  3. Degeneration
    (cause)
    sublethal injury to cells/tissues
  4. Degeneration
    (gross appearance)
    • larger than normal (swollen)
    • paler than normal
    • softer than normal
    • heavier than normal
  5. Degeneration
    (microscopic appearance)
    • swollen cells
    • intact nuclei
    • intact cell membranes (loss of luxury functions)
  6. Acute Cellular Swelling (Hydropic Degeneration)
    (definition)
    accumulation of intracellular water
  7. Acute Cellular Swelling (Hydropic Degeneration)
    (occurrence)
    all tissues - especially liver/kidney, skeletal muscle, epithelia
  8. Acute Cellular Swelling (Hydropic Degeneration)
    (cause)
    disruption of cellular ATP (disruption of N-K ATPase pump)
  9. Acute Cellular Swelling (Hydropic Degeneration)
    (gross appearance)
    • swollen
    • wet
    • heavy
    • grayish color
  10. Acute Cellular Swelling (Hydropic Degeneration)
    (microscopic appearance)
    • swollen cells
    • increased cytoplasmic granularity
    • cytoplasmic water spaces indistinct/irregular
    • nuclei displaced to periphery (unaffected)
  11. Fatty Degeneration
    (definition)
    accumulation of triglycerides in non-adipose cells
  12. Fatty Degeneration
    (occurrence)
    liver, kidney, skeletal/cardiac muscle
  13. Fatty Degeneration
    (cause)
    • dietary
    • fat mobilization disease
    • hepatic disease
    • hypoxia
    • toxins
  14. Fatty Degeneration
    (gross appearance)
    • swollen
    • pale
    • friable
    • greasy
    • yellow
  15. Fatty Degeneration
    (microscopic appearance)
    • cytoplasmic vacuoles with clear margins
    • remaining cytoplasm/organelles displaced - eosinophilic
    • nuclei displaced by lipid droplets
  16. Myxomatous Degeneration
    (definition)
    accumulation of extracellular proteinic material (resembles embryonic CT)
  17. Myxomatous Degeneration
    (occurrence)
    adipose and connective tissue
  18. Myxomatous Degeneration
    (cause)
    • starvation
    • malnutrition
    • wasting
    • chronic inflammation
  19. Myxomatous Degeneration
    (gross appearance)
    • soft
    • fluctuant
    • watery
    • shiny
  20. Myxomatous Degeneration
    (microscopic appearance)
    looks like fetal CT (mesenchyme)
  21. Hyaline Degeneration
    (definition)
    accumulation and denaturation of cytoplasmic proteins
  22. Hyaline Degeneration
    (occurrence)
    connective tissue smooth muscle, epithelia, skeletal muscle (Zenker's necrosis)
  23. Hyaline Degeneration
    (cause)
    buildup and coagulation of protein
  24. Hyaline Degeneration
    (microscopic appearance)
    • CT and smooth muscle - collagen condenses into extracellular, eosinophilic structureless proteinic material
    • Epithelia - eosinophilic droplets in cytoplasm (often w/hydropic degeneration); PAS +
    • Skeletal muscle - densely eosinophilic amorphous material in sarcoplasm (often w/hydropic, fatty degeneration)
  25. Autolysis
    (definition)
    disintigration of tissues following somatic death
  26. Autolysis
    (occurrence)
    all tissues
  27. Autolysis
    (cause)
    Anoxia causing rupture of lysosomes with enzymatic self-digestions and invasion of proteolytic microbes
  28. Autolysis
    (gross appearance)
    • progressive deterioration of tissues
    • coagulation (pools on down-side)
    • discoloration
    • gas/odor
  29. Autolysis
    (microscopic appearance)
    • diffuse change
    • loss of nuclear and cellular function
    • microbes without inflammatory response

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