Anatomy/Phys Exam 1

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anastasia611
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62738
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Anatomy/Phys Exam 1
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2011-01-29 21:15:51
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anatomy
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test 1
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  1. Posterior / Dorsal
    • towards the back
    • away from the belly
  2. Anterior/ Ventral
    • towards the front
    • toward belly side
  3. lateral
    away from the midline
  4. medial
    towards the midline

    example ears are lateral to the eyes
  5. cranial/rostral
    • towards the head/cranium
    • example nose is cranial to the lips
  6. caudal
    • towards tail
    • example navel is caudal to the nose
  7. superior
    towards upper part of body
  8. inferior
    towards lower part of body
  9. superficial / external
    • at or near the body surface
    • example scratch
  10. deep/internal
    • away from the surface
    • towards core of body
  11. Proximal
    towards the root of free extremity or towards body
  12. Distal
    away from the root of free extremety or away from the body
  13. Three Planes
    • 1. Frontal / Coronal Plane : divide body into anterior and posterior
    • 2. Median / Saggital Plane : Gives left half and right half
    • 3. Transverse / Horizontal Plane : divide into superior and inferior (upper / lower )
  14. Five Tissue Types
    • 1. Epithelial
    • 2. Connective
    • 3. Muscular
    • 4. Nervous
    • 5. Vascular
  15. Epithelial Tissue
    • sheet covering external surface of body, lining tubes and passageways to exterior, and interior body cavities
    • functions include protection, secretion, sensation, absorption
    • three types of epithelial
    • 1. proper: outer, continuous, skin, mucus
    • 2. mesothelial: smooth slippery lining
    • 3. endothelial: lines blood vessels / lymph vessels
  16. Connective Tissue
    • connects or binds structures together
    • supports body
    • aids in body maintenance
    • three types of connective
    • 1.Loose
    • 2. Dense
    • 3. Special
  17. Loose Connective Tissue
    • extensively distributed
    • binds parts together
    • two types of loose connective tissue
    • 1.ariolar : form bed that epithelial sits on
    • 2. adispose tissue: fat cells
  18. Dense Connective Tissue
    • may be fibrous or elastic
    • tendons, aponeuroses, ligament, fascia
    • two types of dense
    • 1.fibrous : tendon, aponeuroses,
    • 2. elastic : ligament , fascia
  19. Special Connective Tissue:
    • structural role
    • cartilage and bone
    • forms skeleton
    • three types of cartilige
    • 1. Hyaline: tough, protects bone, can lose through arthritis, forms lower respiratory system,
    • 2. Elastic: rubbery, flexible, all are involved in production and perception of sound
    • 3. Fibrous: seen in joints
  20. Tendon
    • the way we connect muscle to bone, bone to cartilage, sometimes muscle to muscle
    • piece of rope
    • non elastic
    • always associated with muscle
    • example achilles tendon
  21. Aponeurosis
    • if you roll out tendon you get this
    • sheet of tendon
    • used to connect muscle to parts of origin or insertion of muscle
    • supports
    • tough fibrous sheet of tendon
    • example abdominal aponeurosis is a sheet of tendon that keeps everything in place from ribs to pubic bone
  22. Ligament
    • elastic
    • use to attach skeletal structures bone to bone, bone to cartilage, cartilage to cartilage
    • holds joints in place
  23. Fascia
    • all the rest, associated with muscle and more with tendons than ligaments
    • organizes muscles to functional units
    • separates muscle from skin
    • organizational layer (neck fascia)
  24. Axial
    • spine, rib cage, skull hyoid bone
    • central
  25. Appendicular
    • appendages
    • shoulders arms legs hips feet
  26. Elevations
    • condyle: a rounded knuckle like projection
    • crest: prominant ridge
    • head: enlargement at 1 end of the bone
    • process: boney prominance
    • spine: sharp projection
    • tubercle: small rounded projection
    • tuberosity: large rounded projection
  27. Depressions
    • fissure: cleft or deep groove (eye socket)
    • foramen: whole or opening in bone
    • fossa: pit or hallow
    • sulcus: groove or furrow
    • meatus; tube or passageway (ear canal)
    • sinus: cavity within bone
    • three types of sinus
    • frontal sinus: above eyes, cave
    • ethnoid sinus: sidewalls of nasal passages
    • maxillary sinus: under eyes, hollow
  28. Joints
    • skeletal bones functionally connected at articulations or joints
    • three types of joints
    • 1. synarthroidial: immoveable, fibrous
    • 2. amphiarthroidial: yielding, carilagenous, some movement
    • 3. diarthroidial: moveable
  29. Synarthroidial Joint
    • immoveable
    • bones almost in direct contact
    • suture = immoveable joint
    • examples skull structures, teeth
  30. Amphiarthroidial Joints
    • all cartilagneous connections
    • allows some movement
    • allows for cpr
    • examples ribs to sternum vertebra pubic
  31. diarthroidial joint
    • rotate up down through every axis
    • ball and socket
    • ribs to vertebra
    • shoulders
    • get movement around these joints through muscle contractions
  32. Nervous Tissue
    • highly specialized cells
    • elongated cells
    • irritable, stimulate and it changes
    • responds to stimulation
    • basic unit is neuron
  33. Muscle Tissue
    • performs mechanical work by contracting
    • wants to bring 2 ends together
    • responsible for all voluntary and much of our involuntary behavior
    • 3 types
    • 1. smooth: involuntary muscle, not under our control (bodily functions)
    • 2. striated: skeleton, attached muscle, voluntary control
    • 3. cardiac: combo of first two found in heart
  34. Muscle Attachments
    • muscle typically has two attachments
    • 1. origin: attachment that is fixed or moves less
    • 2. insertion: structure being acted upon or moved via contraction
  35. Muscle Action
    • typically produced movement
    • act on joint lying between origin and insertion
    • muscle and joint that it acts upon form lever system
    • disadvantage: you need more force / muscle mass

    • lever system: muscle is force arm, folcrum is joint, resistance arm is load, lengths of these arms are how far away the joint is
    • force arm longer than resistance arm is advantage
  36. Class I Lever System
    • may operate with mechanical advantage or disadvantage
    • power lost, but range and speed of movement gained
  37. Mechanical Advantage / Disadvantage
    advantage: force arm > resistance arm, small applied force will move large resistive force (load )

    disadvantage: force arm < resistance arm, large applied force required to overcome small resistance force (load)
  38. Class II Lever System
    • always operate with a mechanical advantage
    • example, opening jaw against resistance
    • folcrum at one end, load center
    • like a wheel barrel
  39. Class III Lever System
    • always operate with disadvantage
    • power lost but speed of movement gained
    • example arm flexion
  40. Aganist
    two muscles help each other
  41. Antaganist
    muscles work opposite each other
  42. Abduction
    move away from the body
  43. Adduction
    move towards the body
  44. Vascular Tissue
    Fluid tissues such as blood or lymph
  45. Organ
    • two or more tissues combined together to exhibit functional unity
    • kidney
  46. System
    • two or more organs combine to exhibit functional unity
    • 5 systems we need to know
    • skeletal
    • articulator
    • muscular
    • nervous
    • respiratory
  47. region
    • particular area of body perhaps containing more than one organ and / or system
    • head and neck
    • thorasic
  48. Nervous System Subdivision
    • CNS: brain and spinal cord
    • PNS: cranial and spinal nerves

    • spinal nerves: exit from spinal cord and are everywhere (two types)
    • 1. afferent nerves carry sensory info to CNS
    • 2. efferent nerves carry motor commands away from CNS
    • cranial nerves: mostly head and neck
  49. Neural Transmission
    • all living cells are polarized = electrical potential
    • maintain small difference in electrical potential across cell membrane
    • unlike other living cells, neuron can alter polarization for a brief period of time
    • four substances to electric potentials: Na, Cl, K, Anions
  50. Synapse
    • connection of two neurons
    • termination of axon of one neuron connected to dendrite of another
    • junction
    • post synaptic membrane: dendrite on next neuron
    • neurotransmitter crosses synapse to post synapic membrane
    • NT releases substance in dendrite called post synaptic potential (voltage change in next dendrite)
    • Excitatory or inhibitory (EPSP/ IPSP)
  51. Action Potential
    • depolarization within dendritic zone referred to as EPSP
    • EPSP travels through dendrite
    • reaches axon hillock (spike generator)
    • if EPSP exceeds generator threshold, AP generated that travels along axon
    • all or nothing
  52. Nerve Impulse Transmission
    • speed of transmission depends on size of fiber
    • bigger fiber = faster
    • myelinated = faster
    • ap jumps to nodes of ranvier
  53. Myelin Sheath
    • myelinated nerve fibers covered by non continuous myelin sheath
    • discontinuities = nodes
  54. Motor Systems
    • body movements carried out by coordinated contractions of muscles
    • all muscle tissue shares common property of contractibility
  55. Innervation Ratio
    • number of muscle fibers innervated by single motor neuron
    • 1:1 = more control
    • gross control is larger
  56. Motor Unit
    array of one motor neuron and its muscle fibers
  57. Motor endplate
    junction of final motor neuron and muscle fiber
  58. MAP
    • action potential that spreads along muscle fiber
    • transmission of MAP is slower than regular neuronal AP

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