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organisms causing disease
their means of attacking the host
an infection by a ubiquitous microorganisms, often observed in cases of immune deficiency
innate immunity barriers
- 1. skin and mucosal membranes
- 2. phagocytic cells
- 3. soluble molecules
What are 3 soluble molecules that contribute to innate immunity?
- 1. lysozyme
- 2. interferon
- 3. complement
a hydrolytic enzyme found in mucous secretions and in tears that is able to cleave the peptidoglycan layer of the bacterial cell wall
comprises a group of proteins produced by virus-infected cells (they have the ability to bind to nearby cells and induce a generalized antiviral state)
includes a group of serum proteins that circulate in an inactive state.
the ability to recognize a given class of molecules
the soluble proteins are growth factor-like molecules that react with receptors on a synthesis of new factors or to undergo differentiation to a new cell type
a class of cytokines that have chemotactic activity and that recruits specific cells to the site of the cell secreting that cytokine
the type of intracellular communication mediated by cytokines
signaling involves......(2 things) (what two ways can it happen?)
- 1. soluble molecule (ligand)2. cell membrane-bound molecule (receptor)
it can be #1 & #2 or it can be two #2s on two different cells :)
Adaptive immunity displays four characteristic attributes:
- 1. antigenic specificity
- 2. diversity
- 3. immunologic memory
- 4. self-non-self recognition
lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells cooperate in which kind of immunity?
lymphocytes are made where? what are they?
they are on of many types of WBCs produced in the bone marrow by the process of hematopoiesis. mediate the 4 attributes of adaptive immunity
what is the difference between B cells and T cells?
- B CELLS-mature in the bone marrow
- -expresses antigen binding receptor on its membrane (membrane bound antibody molecule)
- -when the antigen binds to the antibody the cell divides rapidly into memory B cells and effector B cells
- T CELLS
- -arise in bone marrow but matures in the thymus gland
- - express a unique antigen binding molecule called the T-cell receptor (TCR)
- -can only recognize an antigen that is bound to a major histocompatibility complex molecule (MHC)
- -when encountering an antigen it proliferates into memory T cells and effector T cells
Two types of T cells...what kind of glycoprotein in the membrane?....what kind of MHC?
- T Helper-CD4-MHC Class II
- T Cytotoxic-CD8-MHC Class I
Class I MHC is expressed where?
in all nucleated cells
Class II MHC is expressed where?
in antigen presenting cell
immune system lost its sense to differentiate self and non-self. therefore the antigen develops against self system
when any components of innate or acquired immunity are defective due to genetic abnormality or due to damage by chemical, physical, or biological agents. (IgA is lacking)
immune system will attack and reject any transplanted organ that it recognizes as non-self
graft vs. host disease
any transplanted cells with immune function is also rejected bc of its own immune system bc it recognizes the host as non-self
allergies and asthma involves which Immunoglobin? what causes this?
IgE; allergies and asthma happen when there is an inappropriate immune response to something harmless