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2011-01-29 22:16:40
CBC Radiology

workbook questions
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  1. The main function of the cardiovascular system is to maintain an adequate ____ of _____ to all the tissues in the body
    • supply
    • blood
  2. The function of the cardiovascular system is accomplished by _______ contractions of the heart.
  3. The heart rate is controlled by the ______ nervous system.
  4. _______ accelerates the heart rate and increases the force of its contraction.
  5. The purpose of the heart valves is to prevent?
    reguritation (blackflow)
  6. The heart chambers are composed of _____ muscle.
  7. The tricusped valve has three _____ and is between the ____ atrium and ____ ventricle.
    • cusps
    • right
    • right
  8. The semilunar valves separate the ______ from the great vessels leaving the heart.
  9. ______ circulation provides oxygen and nourishment to tissues throughout the body.
  10. _______ circulation is the circulation of blood through the lungs to increase the oxygen level in the blood.
  11. ______ circulation requires a greater pressure so the wall of the _____ ventricle is considerably thicker.
    • Systemic
    • left
  12. The heart chambers relax and fill with blood during ______.
  13. The rhythm of the heart is dependant upon the conduction system, which produces impulses initially in the ________ and _________.
    • SA node (sinoatrial)
    • AV node (atrioventricular)
  14. Diastolic overloading and enlargement of the left atrium and left ventricle are the radiographic appearance of?
    ventricular septal defect
  15. ______________ produces a prominent aortic knob because of shunting of blood through the aorta.
    Patent ductus arteriosus
  16. Tetralogy of Fallot consists of a combination of what four abnormalities?
    • Ventricular septal defect
    • Overiding of aortic orifice above VSD
    • pulmonary stenosis
    • right ventriclar hypertrophy
  17. ________ of the aorta causes a decreased blood flow to the abdomen and legs because of the constriction of the vessel.
  18. In most patients, coronary artery narrowing is caused by deposits of ______ material in the inner arterial wall.
  19. Death of the myocardium due to coronary artery occlusion is referred to as a _________________.
    myocardial infarct
  20. Fifty percent of coronary artery disease occurs in the _____ coronary.
  21. In percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, a ballon catheter is used to ____ the constricted coronary artery.
    dilate (open)
  22. Name four associated radiographic appearances related to left-sided heart failure.
    • cardiac enlargement
    • redistrobution of pulmonary venous flow
    • interstetial/alveolar edema
    • pleural effusion
  23. The radiographer can influence the size of the heart on an image by changing which three criteria?
    • using less than 72" SID
    • AP vs PA
    • recumbant vs upright
  24. Cardiomegally is evaluated using the ________ ratio.
    cardiothoracic (C/T)
  25. The most common cause of pulmonary edema is elevated _____________ pressure.
    pulmonary venous
  26. A loss of normal sharp definition of the pulmonary vascular markings occurs in ____________.
    pulmonary edema
  27. Blood pressure is dependent upon what two factors.
    • cardiac output
    • total peripheral resistance
  28. Name the two types of aneurysms.
    • sacular
    • fusiform
  29. A KUB demonstrates a curvilinear _______ in the wall of an aneurysm.
  30. Abdomial aortic aneurysms are called the silent killer because of the danger of a ____________.
    massive hemorrage
  31. In case of closed chest trauma, name other imaging signs besides mediastinal widening that are important for a definitive diagnosis of rupture of the aorta.
    • right displacement of nasogastric tube (NG)
    • widening of right paratracheal stripe
    • apical pleura cap sign
  32. An intravascular clot is called a?
  33. ______ circulation provides the myocardium with nourishment.
  34. What is the contraction phase of the heart called?
  35. Double membranous sac surrounding the heart?
  36. ______ prevents back flow between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
    tricuspid valve
  37. ______ stimulates mechanical contraction of the atria.
    Sinoatrial node (SA node)
  38. Accumulation of fluid within the space surrounding the heart?
    Pericardial effusion
  39. Closed chest trauma with mediastinal widening.
    Aortic rupture
  40. ______ develops in the veins where blood flow is static (slow).
  41. __________ are dilated elongated tortuous vessels.
    Varicose veins
  42. Disruption of the inner layer of the blood vessel allowing blood to enter the wall of the aorta?
    Dissection of the aorta
  43. Free communication between the atria, from a lack of closure of the foramen ovale.
    ASD, atrial septal defect
  44. Inability of the heart to provide the body with an adequate blood supply.
    CHF- congestive heart failure
  45. Leading cause of strokes and CHF?
  46. Most common cause of cyanotic congenital heart disease?
    Tetralogy of Fallot
  47. Narrowing or constriction of the aorta?
    Coarctation of the aorta
  48. Saccular and fusiform are types of?
  49. Symptom of hardened arteries that have a loss of elasticity?
  50. Vessel connecting the pulmonary artery and the aorta that should be closed after birth?
    Patent ductus arteriosus
  51. The most common congenital cardiac lesion is?
    ASD- atrial septal defect
  52. ________ is becoming the modality of choice to image heart disease because both the morphologic and functional anomalies can be visualized.
  53. The classic "coeur en sabot" resembling the curved portion of the wooden shoe (boot shaped) appears in cases of?
    Tetralogy of Fallot
  54. Rib notching and two buldges in the region of the aortic knob demonstrate radiographically as?
    Coarctation of the aorta
  55. The most commonly used noninvasive study to assess regional blood flow and tissue viability of the myocardium is?
    Nuclear Medicine perfussion scan
  56. The definitive procedure to determine the presence and severity of coronary artery disease is?
    coronary angiography
  57. Right-sided heart failure causes a back flow of blood in the _______________.
    venous system circulation
  58. The "butterfly" or "bat wings" pattern that is most prominent in the central portion of the lungs is indicitive of?
    pulmonary edema
  59. What is the radiographic appearance of pulmonary edema?
    Butterfly or bat wings pattern in the central portion of the lungs
  60. Systolic pressure above ____ and diastolic pressure above ______ is considered hypertensive.
    • 140
    • 90
  61. A result of long standing hypertension is?
    hypertensive heart disease
  62. Localized dilation of an artery is an?
  63. Which of the following are types of aneurysms?
    saccular, fusiform, weakness in the blood vessel wall
    all the answers.
  64. For abdominal aortic aneurysms, the noninvasive modality or procedure of choice for initial detection is?
  65. To best demonstrate the location and extent of an aneurysm, the diagnostician's choice in imaging is (of the following): CTA, MRA, US
    Both CTA or MRA
  66. ______ begins with an intimal tear in the aorta.
  67. The classic "double-barrel" aorta is indicitive of?
    aortic dissection
  68. To demonstrate venous patency in varicose veins, ______ is the procedure of choice.
    lower leg venography
  69. Bacteria or fungi form vegitations on the heart valves in (what pathology)?
    infective carditis
  70. On echocardiography, a posterior sonolucent fluid collection surrounding the heart is suggestive of?
    pericardial effusion
  71. The development of nodules or vegitations on the heart valves caused by bacteria or fungi is indicitive of?
    infective carditis
  72. Septic emboli is a complication of?
    infective carditis
  73. The most common underlying disorder causing renovascular hypertension is?
    fibromuscular dysplasia
  74. A tear in the intima is an?
    aortic dissection
  75. A hemorrhage into the mediastinum causes a mediastinal widening and a loss of a discrete aortic knob shadow in a?
    traumatic aortic rupture
  76. To identify a clot within an aneurysm, the modality of choice is?
    CTA (CT angiography)
  77. A saccular aneurysm is defined as an?
    outpouching only on one side of the artery
  78. The continued strain of _________ leads to dilation and enlargement of the left ventricle.
    hypertensive heart disease
  79. ___________ is most commonly seen in young women and appears radiographically as a pattern of a "string of beads."
    Fibrous dysphasia
  80. ________ refers to an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the extravascular pulmonary tissue.
    Pulmonary edema
  81. A bilateral symmetric fan-shaped infiltration seen on a OA CXR is the characteristic radiographic sign of?
    butterfly, pulmonary edema
  82. The cardiothoracic (C/T) ratio is used to evaluate?
    heart size
  83. When the heart lacks the ability to adequately supply the bosy with blood, the patient has?
    congestive heart failure (CHF)
  84. When coronary vascularization is occluded, the area of the myocardium loses its blood supply, causing?
    MI, myocardial infact
  85. A constriction on the aorta causing a reduced blood flow to the abdominal organs and the lower extremities is called ________ of the aorta.
  86. Cyanotic congenital heart disease consists of four abnormalities to include: high ventricular septal defect, overriding of the aortic orifice abouve the VSD, right ventricular hypertrophy and?
    • pulmonary stenosis
    • Known as...Tetrology of Fallot
  87. A vessel extending from the pulmonary artery to the aorta occurs in patients with?
    ductus arteriosus
  88. If the first impulse in the conduction system of the heart fails to fire, the _______ will generate rhythmic impulses at a slower normal rate.
    ectopic pacemaker
  89. Temporary oxygen insufficiency to the heart muscle causes severe chaest pain termed?
    angina pectoris
  90. A congenital narrowing or constriction of the thoracic aorta is referred to as?
  91. The ______ of the heart are the major site of damage from rheumatic fever.
  92. The most sensative and specific noninvasive method of diagnosing mitral stenosis is?
  93. The invasive procedure for determining deep vein thrombosis is?
  94. The most accurate screening procedure for assessing renovascular lesions is?
  95. A potentially life-threatening condition that usually begins as a tear in the intima above the aortic valve is an?
    aortic dissection